A Distribution and Taxonomic Reference Dataset of Geranium (Geraniaceae) in the New World

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The dataset includes 8937 records that covers genus Geranium the New World, providing an updated, taxonomically consistent and a sound geographical distribution of the 137 species of Geranium in America. These are the studied specimens on which following monograph was based: Aedo, Carlos (2012). Revision of Geranium (Geraniaceae) in the New World. Systematic Botany Monographs 95: 550p.

Besides the exhaustive taxonomic work done, and reflected in the dataset, a detailed revision of the locality of the specimens was performed, and geographic coordinates could be assigned with a 1 minute accuracy in c. 6500 records. Duplicate specimens kept in different collections have been aggregated into single records. Specimens from 128 herbaria were reviewed. These were supplemented by others collected during nine field trips, which allowed to know better the variability of characters within populations, and refine species distribution ranges. These expeditions took place in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, United States and Venezuela, and yielded 235 herbarium specimens of Geranium belonging to 46 species.

The potential for this dataset to be widely reused is very high, given the level of taxonomic and geographic scrutiny this dataset encompasses, its completeness, and the fact that Geranium is a well-known genus, widely used in horticulture and for pharmaceutical products.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 8,937 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Aedo C, Pando F (2021): A Distribution and Taxonomic Reference Dataset of Geranium (Geraniaceae) in the New World. v2.12. CSIC-Real Jardín Botánico. Dataset/Occurrence. https://doi.org/10.15470/ibqzdo


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Real Jardín Botánico (CSIC). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 26d72d3b-4544-4645-aa56-27aa8a669c6f.  Real Jardín Botánico (CSIC) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.


Occurrence; Specimen; Botany; Plant Sciences; Taxonomy; Species distribution; America; inventoryRegional; taxonomicAuthority; Occurrence


Carlos Aedo
  • Content Provider
  • Metadata Provider
  • Author
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Real Jardin Botanico -CSIC
Claudio Moyano 1
28014 Madrid
Francisco Pando
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Real Jardin Botanico -CSIC
Claudio Moyano 1
28014 Madrid

Geographic Coverage

The New World: South America,Central America and North America

Bounding Coordinates South West [-57.81, -173.83], North East [71.59, -25.86]

Taxonomic Coverage

The dataset includes all native and well-established introduced species of Geranium found in the New World but not occasional introductions. Adventive species, such as garden-escapes, are included. These are: G. ibericum, G. incanum, G. palmatum, G. solanderi, and G. yedoi. 14 specimesn with intermediated feaures between G. campii and G. sibbaldioides from Ecuador (cf. Aedo 2012) have been removed from the databased.

Phylum Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Geraniales
Family Geraniaceae
Genus Geranium (Geranio)
Subgenus Geranium, Robertianum, Erodioidea

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1787-01-01 / 2012-01-01

Sampling Methods

Field expeditions targeting geographic and taxonomic gaps identified during herbarium revision work

Study Extent Specimens of 128 herbaria were studied. The herbarium acronyms (and number of studied specimens) containing the higher number of relevant specimens were: MO (1493); NY (1181); MA (774); GH (666); F (630); MEXU (504); COL (469); DAO (440); CONC (413); BM (258) Herbarium material was supplemented by specimens collected during nine field trips, which allowed knowing better the variability of characters within populations, and refining species distribution ranges. These expeditions took place in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, United States and Venezuela, and yielded 235 herbarium specimens of Geranium belonging to 46 species.
Quality Control Studied specimens are listed in sufficient detail to allow revision and act checking. These data are made publicly available. Previous taxonomic sources studied and listed in the monograph. Database details (scientific names, dates, geographic coordinates and places checked for consistency using controlled vocabularies. Further validation procedures (geographic coordinate format, coordinates within country/provincial boundaries, absence of ASCII anomalous characters in the dataset) were performed with DARWIN_TEST (v3.3) software (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008), and additional checks were performed using the Vesper platform (Graham and Kenedy 2014).

Method step description:

  1. Eighty-nine characters were scored for the species description: 58 qualitative and 27 quantitative traits as well as four ratios. Ideally at least 15 specimens were scored for each species. Quantitative characters were assessed with a Digital caliper Mitutoyo CD-15CD. The most frequent values are percentiles, and the extreme values are enclosed in parentheses. In the line drawings of leaf laminas and petals the adaxial side is shown, unless stated otherwise. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of pollen, mericarps, and seeds, samples were glued to aluminum stubs, coated with 40—50 nm gold, and examined with a JEOL TSM T330A scanning electron microscope at 15 kV. A database containing nomenclature, taxonomic and specimen-level data was built following the guidelines described in: Pando, F.. 1999: Manual de las bases de datos de Flora Mycologica Iberica. – Cuad. Fl. Micol. Ibérica 2: 3-67 Pando, F., Muñoz Garmendia, J. F. & Aedo, C. 1999: Manual de las bases de datos nomenclaturales de Flora Mycologica Iberica y Flora Iberica. – Cuad. Fl. Micol. Ibérica 14: 3-58.

Collection Data

Collection Name MO Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name NY Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/SteereHerbarium.asp
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name MA Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.rjb.csic.es/jardinbotanico/jardin/index.php?Cab=109&len=en
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name GH Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://huh.harvard.edu/pages/gray-herbarium-gh
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name F Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.fieldmuseum.org/science/research/area/plants-fungi
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name MEXU Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.ib.unam.mx/botanica/herbario/
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name COL Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.museos.unal.edu.co/sccs/plantilla_museo_3.php?id_subseccion_museo=456&id_museo=31
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name DAO Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/research-centres/ontario/eastern-cereal-and-oilseed-research-centre/the-agriculture-and-agri-food-canada-collection-of-vascular-plants/?id=1251393521021
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name CONC Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www2.udec.cl/~herbconc/
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Collection Name BM Herbarium
Collection Identifier http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/scientific-resources/collections/index.html
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Specimen preservation methods Dried and pressed
Curatorial Units Between 8,917 and 11,250 herbarium specimens

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Aedo, Carlos (2012). Revision of Geranium (Geraniaceae) in the New World. Systematic Botany Monographs 95: 550p.
  2. Aedo, C. (2014) Novas ocorrências de Geranium L. para a flora do Brasil. Iheringia 69(1): 221-223 http://www.fzb.rs.gov.br/upload/20140805154148ih69_1_p221_223.pdf
  3. Aedo, C., Muñoz Garmendia, F. & Pando, F. (1998). World checklist of Geranium L. (Geraniaceae). Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 56(2) : 211-252.
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  5. Carlos Aedo, Francisco Pando. 2017. A distribution and taxonomic reference dataset of Geranium in the New World. Scientific Data 4, 170049 http://doi.org/10.15470/ibqzdo

Additional Metadata

Purpose This dataset gathers the primary data organized to support a modern and comprehensive monograph of Geranium in America
Alternative Identifiers doi:10.15470/ibqzdo