Mammals camera trap survey in eastern Sierra Nevada (Spain)

Sampling event
Latest version published by Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC) on Sep 19, 2023 Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC)

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The current data set provides all mammals recorded during a camera-trap survey performed in eastern Sierra Nevada (Southeastern Iberian peninsula) in order to detect wildcats (Felis silvestris) within the subproject "Feral Cats" of the SUMHAL macroproject. Forty-seven camera-traps were deployed between April 2022 and December 2022.

Data Records

The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 47 records.

1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

Event (core)

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Sanglas A, Palomares F (2023). Mammals camera trap survey in eastern Sierra Nevada (Spain). Version 2.2. Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC). Samplingevent dataset.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC 4.0) License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 862f859d-834f-446e-ba05-e82674855b88.  Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.


camera trap; carnivores; distribution; mammals; Mediterranean region; mountainous area; occurrence; protected area; survey; wildcat; Samplingevent


Ariadna Sanglas
  • Metadata Provider
  • Author
  • Originator
Research assistant
Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC
Avda. Américo Vespucio 26
41092 Sevilla
Francisco Palomares
  • Metadata Provider
Principal investigator
Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC
Avda. Américo Vespucio 26
41092 Sevilla
Francisco Palomares
  • Metadata Provider
Research assistant
Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC
Avda. Américo Vespucio 26
41092 Sevilla

Geographic Coverage

The study area was located in the east of the National and Natural park of Sierra Nevada (Spain), and includes the municipalities of Abrucena, Abla, Ohanes and Las Tres Villas.

Bounding Coordinates South West [37.067, -2.861], North East [37.132, -2.723]

Taxonomic Coverage


Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Rodentia, Carnivora, Artiodactyla
Family Cervidae, Muridae, Mustelidae, Suidae, Bovidae, Felidae, Canidae

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2022-04-25 / 2022-12-13

Project Data

The project SUMHAL aims at implementing a strategy for biodiversity conservation in the western Mediterranean hotspot by setting a technologically efficient and scientifically robust system. The project combines fieldwork and virtual research environments for the recording, storing, analysis, and dissemination of the conservation status and threats of biodiversity in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The general aim of WP4 is to focus on anthropogenic impacts (biological invasions, land-use changes and food subsidies) that are of great global concern and therefore relevant not only to Andalusian and Spanish ecosystems and societies, but also to Europe as a whole. To this end, it will use traditional and other novel methodologies, mainly of remote animal monitoring, in addition to the participation of society to monitor ecological and socio-economic impacts at different spatial scales.

Title Sustainability for Mediterranean Hotspots in Andalusia integrating LifeWatch ERIC (SUMHAL). Work package 4 (WP4): Combining field data, citizen science and loT to monitor anthropogenic impacts on Andalusian biodiversity and society
Identifier LIFEWATCH-2019-09-CSIC-4, POPE 2014-2020
Funding This study was funded by MICINN through European Regional Development Fund [SUMHAL, LIFEWATCH-2019-09-CSIC-4, POPE 2014-2020]
Study Area Description SUMHAL focuses in Andalusia (Southern Spain), as a representation of the western Mediterranean ecosystems. However, each subproject that belongs to WP4 has its own study area at a more local level.

The personnel involved in the project:

Francisco Palomares

Sampling Methods

Each camera trap was left at the same point for an average of two months and then moved to another location. Cameras deployed on the same date were separated by each other by a mean distance of 900 m approximately. However, in order to maximize the possibility to record wildcats, in each new deployment of several cameras, old positions were not taken into account, meaning that some positions might be very close to each other, but correspond to different sampling periods. We used two different models of camera traps (Bushnell Trophy Cam HD Black Led and Acorn LTL5310) similarly programmed to take 3 pictures per trigger at the minimum speed trigger available. Cameras were tied to trees at 0.20–1 m above ground and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) urine was used as an attractant for wildcats at a distance of 2-4 m from camera traps.

Study Extent The study was carried out in the eastern part of Sierra Nevada National and Natural Park (southeastern Iberian peninsula), within the municipal boundaries of Abrucena, Abla, Ohanes and Las Tres Villas. The area surveyed comprises an altitudinal range between 942 and 2215 m a.s.l. Vegetation in the area can be separated into three different habitats: the high mountain habitat dominated by rocky outcrops and natural crevices, the mid-mountain habitat occupied by deciduous forests such as oak, maple and cherry, and the lower areas, where oak and riverside forests can be found mixed with almond orchards. A woodland ring formed by autochthonous oak forest (Quercus sp.) and pine plantations (Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) is a characteristic of the area that appears below 2400 m a.s.l

Method step description:

  1. Pictures were sorted following the methodology of R package CamtrapR (Niedballa et al. 2016) in order to extract metadata (date and time of the picture). Consecutive pictures of the same species within a 30 min interval were considered as the same event unless individuals could be identified by their fur patterning or other features (injuries, marks, spots). Mammals belonging to domestic animal herds or other species of vertebrates such as birds or reptiles were not included.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Niedballa J, Sollmann R, Courtiol A, Wilting A (2016). “camtrapR: an R package for efficient camera trap data management.” Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7(12), 1457–1462. doi:10.1111/2041-210X.12600

Additional Metadata

Purpose The dataset can be used to model distributions of mammal species (including domestic carnivores) and study the presence-absence of certain species in natural areas.
Maintenance Description This dataset is closed and will not be updated, unless errors or issues are reported by users.
Alternative Identifiers 10.15470/mb6rlk