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Vertebrate diversity at Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan

Última versión Publicado por Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona en 11 de enero de 2022 Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
The Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP) in Islamabad, Pakistan, is an important site for the conservation of many plants and animals. The present study aimed to determine the status of fauna diversity and richness, and environmental threats to the animals. A field study was conducted and the point count method was used to determine vertebrate diversity. The survey showed that the MHNP is home to 117 species of birds, 27 reptiles – including species such as the saw-scaled viper, Russell’s viper and the Indian cobra - and 30 mammalian species, such as barking deer, wild boar, golden jackal, red fox, Asiatic leopards, monkeys, fruit bats, and pangolins. The results showed a maximum count of 9,076 birds of 117 species belonging to 48 families. According to the Islamabad wildlife management boa... Más

Descripción

The Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP) in Islamabad, Pakistan, is an important site for the conservation of many plants and animals. The present study aimed to determine the status of fauna diversity and richness, and environmental threats to the animals. A field study was conducted and the point count method was used to determine vertebrate diversity. The survey showed that the MHNP is home to 117 species of birds, 27 reptiles – including species such as the saw-scaled viper, Russell’s viper and the Indian cobra - and 30 mammalian species, such as barking deer, wild boar, golden jackal, red fox, Asiatic leopards, monkeys, fruit bats, and pangolins. The results showed a maximum count of 9,076 birds of 117 species belonging to 48 families. According to the Islamabad wildlife management board, one of the unique species, the grey goral (Nemorhaedus goral), has become extinct at the MHNP as no single specimen has been recorded since 2018. It was also been observed, however, that the numbers of the endangered species of common leopard (Panthera pardus) and pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) have increased, possibly due to the wildlife management board’s strategy for conservation. Nevertheless, greater conservation and protection of wild fauna at the MHNP is still needed. During the visits, threats such as habitat degradation, climate change, and over hunting were recorded, but focus on the implementation of approved legislation and better managerial practices to protect the unique diversity was observed.

Registros

Los datos en este recurso de lista de chequeo han sido publicados como Archivo Darwin Core(DwC-A), el cual es un formato estándar para compartir datos de biodiversidad como un conjunto de una o más tablas de datos. La tabla de datos del core contiene 185 registros.

Este IPT archiva los datos y, por lo tanto, sirve como repositorio de datos. Los datos y los metadatos del recurso están disponibles para su descarga en la sección descargas. La tabla versiones enumera otras versiones del recurso que se han puesto a disposición del público y permite seguir los cambios realizados en el recurso a lo largo del tiempo.

Descargas

Descargue la última versión de los datos como un Archivo Darwin Core (DwC-A) o los metadatos como EML o RTF:

Datos como un archivo DwC-A descargar 185 registros en Inglés (13 kB) - Frecuencia de actualización: no planeado
Metadatos como un archivo EML descargar en Inglés (33 kB)
Metadatos como un archivo RTF descargar en Inglés (17 kB)

Versiones

La siguiente tabla muestra sólo las versiones publicadas del recurso que son de acceso público.

¿Cómo referenciar?

Los usuarios deben citar este trabajo de la siguiente manera:

Aslam I, Yasmeen R (2022): Vertebrate diversity at Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan. v1.3. Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15470/hf1s9i

Derechos

Los usuarios deben respetar los siguientes derechos de uso:

El publicador y propietario de los derechos de este trabajo es Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

Registro GBIF

Este recurso ha sido registrado en GBIF con el siguiente UUID: bb5e0679-e20d-431c-a5c3-a6f3c578c99c.  Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona publica este recurso, y está registrado en GBIF como un publicador de datos avalado por GBIF Spain.

Palabras clave

Biodiversity; Margalla Hills; Habitat; Threats; National Park; Checklist

Contactos

¿Quién creó el recurso?:

I. Aslam
Lahore Garrison University
Lahore
PK
R. Yasmeen
Lahore Garrison University
Lahore
PK

¿Quién puede resolver dudas acerca del recurso?:

I. Aslam
Lahore Garrison University
Lahore
PK
R. Yasmeen
Lahore Garrison University
Lahore
PK

¿Quién documentó los metadatos?:

I. Aslam
Lahore Garrison University
Lahore
PK

¿Quién más está asociado con el recurso?:

Proveedor de los Metadatos
Montse Ferrer
Managing Editor
Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
Ps Picasso s/n
08003 Barcelona
Barcelona
ES

Cobertura geográfica

The study was carried out in Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP), Islamabad, from December 2019 to March 2021. The MHNP is located between 33°43'N and 72°55'E and has a total area of 17,386 hectares.

Coordenadas límite Latitud Mínima Longitud Mínima [33,45, 72], Latitud Máxima Longitud Máxima [34, 73,037]

Cobertura taxonómica

No hay descripción disponible

Filo  Vertebrata

No hay descripción disponible

Class  Actinopterygii,  Amphibia,  Aves,  Mammalia,  Reptilia
Familia  Channidae,  Cyprinidae,  Bufonidae,  Dicroglossidae,  Microhylidae,  Accipitridae,  Acrocephalidae,  Alaudidae,  Alcedinidae,  Anatidae,  Apodidae,  Ardeidae,  Campephagidae,  Caprimulgidae,  Charadriidae,  Cisticolidae,  Columbidae,  Corvidae,  Cuculidae,  Dicruridae,  Emberizidae,  Estrildidae,  Falconidae,  Fringillidae,  Hirundinidae,  Laniidae,  Laridae,  Leiothrichidae,  Megalaimidae,  Meropidae,  Monarchidae,  Motacillidae,  Muscicapidae,  Nectariniidae,  Oriolidae,  Paridae,  Parulidae,  Passeridae,  Phasianidae,  Phylloscopidae,  Picidae,  Pittidae,  Ploceidae,  Psittacidae,  Pycnonotidae,  Rallidae,  Recurvirostridae,  Scolopacidae,  Stenostiridae,  Strigidae,  Sturnidae,  Timaliidae,  Upupidae,  Zosteropidae,  Bovidae,  Canidae,  Cercopithecidae,  Cervidae,  Erinaceidae,  Felidae,  Herpestidae,  Hystricidae,  Leporidae,  Manidae,  Muridae,  Mustelidae,  Pteropodidae,  Sciuridae,  Suidae,  Viverridae,  Agamidae,  Colubridae,  Elapidae,  Gekkonidae,  Geoemydidae,  Lacertidae,  Psammophiidae,  Scincidae,  Trionychidae,  Varanidae,  Viperidae

Cobertura temporal

Fecha Inicial / Fecha Final 2019-12-01 / 2021-03-31

Datos del proyecto

The Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP) in Islamabad, Pakistan, is an important site for the conservation of many plants and animals. The present study aimed to determine the status of fauna diversity and richness, and environmental threats to the animals. A field study was conducted and the point count method was used to determine vertebrate diversity. The survey showed that the MHNP is home to 117 species of birds, 27 reptiles – including species such as the saw-scaled viper, Russell’s viper and the Indian cobra - and 30 mammalian species, such as barking deer, wild boar, golden jackal, red fox, Asiatic leopards, monkeys, fruit bats, and pangolins. The results showed a maximum count of 9,076 birds of 117 species belonging to 48 families. According to the Islamabad wildlife management board, one of the unique species, the grey goral (Nemorhaedus goral), has become extinct at the MHNP as no single specimen has been recorded since 2018. It was also been observed, however, that the numbers of the endangered species of common leopard (Panthera pardus) and pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) have increased, possibly due to the wildlife management board’s strategy for conservation. Nevertheless, greater conservation and protection of wild fauna at the MHNP is still needed. During the visits, threats such as habitat degradation, climate change, and over hunting were recorded, but focus on the implementation of approved legislation and better managerial practices to protect the unique diversity was observed.

Título Vertebrate diversity at Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan
Descripción del área de estudio The study was carried out in Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP), Islamabad, from December 2019 to March 2021. The MHNP is located between 33°43'N and 72°55'E and has a total area of 17,386 hectares. The landscape is mainly comprised of slopes and gullies and limestone rocks. MHNP altitude ranges from 450 to 1,580 meters above sea level (Jabeen et al., 2009). Sampling sites The study area was divided into four sampling sites (fig.1): site 1 (Rawal lake); site 2 (Darra Jangla); site 3 (Shakarparian); and site 4 (Shahdara). Site 1: Rawal Lake Rawal Lake lies south east of Islamabad (PEPA, 2004). It has an area of 19.02 square kilometers with a sustained zone of two square kilometers. Annual precipitation is about 1000 mm and temperature ranges between 1–15°C in winter and 20–40°C in summer. Site 2: Darra Jangla Darra Jangla is situated half a kilometer from trail 3. It is the most wooded and quiet gorge in the park. The stream alongside the trail makes the area an ideal home range for several unique birds and animals. Site 3: Shakrparian Shakarparian is the core part of the park. It is ecologically dense and it is the most diversified area of the park. The Shakarparian has an area of 1376 ha (Jabeen et al., 2009). Its latitude and longitude are 73° 39 N and 33° 44 E. It is considered the most vital part of the park because its thick vegetation provides ideal conditions for numerous animals. Site 4: Shahdara Shahdara is a small town on the fringes of the MHNP. It is seven kilometers from Bara Kahu, and fifteen kilometers from Islamabad. The town is renowned for its animals and water falls. Its dense vegetation provides habitat for many animal species and the town plays a valuable role in conserving biodiversity in the park.
Descripción del diseño Each site was visited frequently to observe the microhabitats - such as rotting logs, leaf litter, flotsam, and water channels - of vertebrates. In winter, surveys were conducted before the onset of the hibernation period of amphibians and reptiles, mostly in October and November. Most studies in winter were carried out before sunset as low evening temperatures limit the movement of most species, including reptiles. We also used hiding places, fecal matter, body impressions, tail drags or footprints, tracks, dens, and egg laying excavations to estimate local distribution and population density of all the classes of vertebrates. Surveys and in summer were conducted early in the morning and late in the afternoon.

Personas asociadas al proyecto:

Autor
I. Aslam

Métodos de muestreo

Each site was visited frequently to observe the microhabitats - such as rotting logs, leaf litter, flotsam, and water channels - of vertebrates. In winter, surveys were conducted before the onset of the hibernation period of amphibians and reptiles, mostly in October and November. Most studies in winter were carried out before sunset as low evening temperatures limit the movement of most species, including reptiles. We also used hiding places, fecal matter, body impressions, tail drags or footprints, tracks, dens, and egg laying excavations to estimate local distribution and population density of all the classes of vertebrates. Surveys and in summer were conducted early in the morning and late in the afternoon.

Área de Estudio The study area was divided into four sampling sites (fig.1): site 1 (Rawal lake); site 2 (Darra Jangla); site 3 (Shakarparian); and site 4 (Shahdara). Site 1: Rawal Lake Rawal Lake lies south east of Islamabad (PEPA, 2004). It has an area of 19.02 square kilometers with a sustained zone of two square kilometers. Annual precipitation is about 1,000 mm and temperature ranges between 1–15°C in winter and 20–40°C in summer. Site 2: Darra Jangla Darra Jangla is situated half a kilometer from trail 3. It is the most wooded and quiet gorge in the park. The stream alongside the trail makes the area an ideal home range for several unique birds and animals. Site 3: Shakrparian Shakarparian is the core part of the park. It is ecologically dense and it is the most diversified area of the park. The Shakarparian has an area of 1376 ha (Jabeen et al., 2009). Its latitude and longitude are 73° 39 N and 33° 44 E. It is considered the most vital part of the park because its thick vegetation provides ideal conditions for numerous animals. Site 4: Shahdara Shahdara is a small town on the fringes of the MHNP. It is seven kilometers from Bara Kahu, and fifteen kilometers from Islamabad. The town is renowned for its animals and water falls. Its dense vegetation provides habitat for many animal species and the town plays a valuable role in conserving biodiversity in the park.
Control de Calidad To evaluate the vertebrate diversity we used the direct count method as described by Haldin and Ulfvens (1987). Species of vertebrate classes such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were considered. The GPS (GARMIN, GPS map 76CS x) was also used for the point coordinates. The equipment used included binoculars (magnification 10 × 50) and spotting scope (magnification 20 × 40 × 60) with a tripod and digital camera. Birds and animals were identified using field guides and reference books (Roberts, 1991, 1992, 1997, Khan, 1977; Mirza et al., 1998; Mirza and Wasiq, 2007; Grimmett et al., 2008, 2016). A bimonthly survey of study area was carried out over one year (7-8 days in each survey).

Descripción de la metodología paso a paso:

  1. Various types of analysis were conducted to establish the diversity index, such as species richness as described by Jost (2006): Shanon-Wiener Index, Simpson Index, Eveness, and Species Richness.

Referencias bibliográficas

  1. Aslam, I., Yasmeen, R., 2021. Vertebrate diversity at Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 19: 237–247, https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0237 https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0237

Metadatos adicionales

Identificadores alternativos 10.15470/hf1s9i
bb5e0679-e20d-431c-a5c3-a6f3c578c99c
https://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=vertebrata_mhnp_pakistan