Fauna diversity in Madracis spp. coral patches in the Colombian Caribbean

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Latest version published by Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona on Dec 28, 2023 Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona

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Description

Madracis coral patches are the main deep-sea framework builder observed on the shelf-break scarp of the Colombian Caribbean, at between 107 and 230 m depth. The Marine Protected Area, Corales de Profundidad National Natural Park, was established in 2013 to protect a site of high biodiversity associated with Madracis communities. Our research summarizes the advances in knowledge of its biodiversity as the result of four expeditions and offers insights into the state of its associated fauna. Madracis colonies occur in five areas of the park but corals thrive and build coral patches in only two of the five, both in the southwest area, Madracis. Our surveys have resulted in the inventory of 337 species. Mollusca (116) dominated the fauna, followed by Bryozoa (70), Cnidaria (50), Echinodermata (39), Arthropoda (14), Annelida (13), Brachiopoda (3), and Chordata (32 fishes). Store voucher specimens at the Museo de Historia Natural Marina de Colombia – Makuriwa and metadata are available online in the SiBM database.

Data Records

The data in this checklist resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 336 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

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How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Cedeño–Posso, C., Polanco F., A., Borrero–Pérez, G. H., Montoya–Cadavid, E., Flórez, P., Yepes–Narváez, V., Cárdenas–Oliva, A., Benavides–Serrato, M., Gracia C., A., Santodomingo, N., 2023. Fauna diversity in Madracis spp. coral patches in the Colombian Caribbean. Checklist. Doi:

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The publisher and rights holder of this work is Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: a74fb0ac-daf4-4bf1-9ca7-6d3d5ccd74cb.  Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.

Keywords

Marine Protected Area; Benthic; Deep-sea corals; Macrofauna; Megafauna; New records; checklist

Contacts

C. Cedeño-Posso
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Marine and Coastal Research Institute
Santa Marta
CO
A. Polanco F.
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Marine and Coastal Research Institute
Santa Marta
CO
G. H. Borrero-Pérez
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Marine and Coastal Research Institute
Santa marta
CO
E. Montoya-Cadavid
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Marine and Coastal Research Institute
Santa marta
CO
P. Flórez
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
MoAm S.A.S
Santa Marta
CO
V. Yepes-Narváez
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Marine and Coastal Research Institute
Santa Marta
CO
A. Cárdenas-Oliva
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Marine and Coastal Research Institute
Santa Marta
CO
M. Benavides-Serrato
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
CO
A. Gracia C.
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Universidad del Atlántico
Atlántico
CO
C. N. Santodomingo
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Natural History Museum
London
GB
Montse Ferrer
  • User
Managing Editor AMZ
Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
Ps Picasso s/n.
08758 Barcelona
Barcelona
ES
609393947

Geographic Coverage

The CPNNP is located in the Colombian Caribbean (fig. 1) on the continental margin off the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Archipelago of San Bernardo, approximately 12 km from one of the areas with major development of shallow-water coral reefs in Colombia, Corales del Rosario y de San Bernardo National Natural Park, and 32 km from the nearest point on the continent (Barú Peninsula). The area is characterized by a strong influence of continental inputs, relatively transparent waters, and large mosaics combining bio-clastic sediment plains and extensive development of coral reefs (Díaz et al., 2000).

Bounding Coordinates South West [4.215, -80.332], North East [13.069, -72.598]

Taxonomic Coverage

No Description available

Phylum Cnidaria, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Chordata
Class Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Stenolaemata, Gymnolaemata, Rhynchonellata, Clitellata, Polychaeta, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea, Asteroidea, Echinoidea, Actinopterygii

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2015-01-01 / 2016-12-31

Project Data

Like their analogs from shallow waters, deep-sea coral communities are a reservoir of ecological, biological and chemical resources and home to a great biodiversity, including species of commercial interest and potential new species for science (Roberts et al., 2009). In the Caribbean region, knowledge of this valuable ecosystem remains understudied, and vast areas are still unexplored (Lutz and Ginsburg, 2007; Hernández-Ávila, 2014). Due to their vulnerability to environmental disturbances and anthropogenic activities, several global efforts have been oriented to protect and study these unique habitats (Fuller et al., 2008; Hourigan, 2009; Zimmerman et al., 2020). The Corales de Profundidad National Natural Park (CPNNP) was declared by the Resolution 0339 of 2013 (MADS 2013) according to IUCN category II, and hosts one of the three deep-sea corals areas identified in the Colombian Caribbean (Reyes et al., 2005; Flórez and Santodomingo, 2010; Santodomingo et al., 2013; Alonso et al., 2021). The highly diverse communities that inhabit the CPNNP are mainly supported by habitat-forming species of Madracis (Santodomingo et al., 2007). In 2001 these communities were accidentally discovered during the “Macrofauna II” expeditions using epibenthic trawl nets (Reyes et al., 2005). The area was later mapped and characterized in 2005 during the “Marcoral” expedition, using Van Veen dredge and rock dredges (Santodomingo et al., 2007, 2013). Detailed maps, the first footage and the description of macro-habitats were obtained using ROV and multipurpose drift-cam (CADEM) during the expeditions carried out in 2015 (Alonso et al., 2015, Cedeño-Posso et al., 2022) and 2016 in campaigns “PNN Corales de Profundidad” and “PNN Madracis”, respectively. During the campaign PNN Corales de Profundidad (2015), eleven areas of potential development of Madracis were explored and mapped using a digital elevation model of bathymetry and ROV surveys. Madracis colonies were observed in five of the eleven areas surveyed. However, Madracis corals thrive and sustain a large concentration of marine fauna only in two of the areas, both in the southwest where they were discovered (Santodomingo et al., 2007) (Alonso et al., 2015; Cedeño-Posso et al., 2022). These two coral patches were targeted for additional multipurpose drift-cam surveys during the PNN Madracis expedition in 2016. This paper describes and summarizes the state-of-the art of the biodiversity associated with these Madracis spp. coral patches. Here, we integrate the information obtained in four expeditions using several methods in order to provide a physical description of the patches, their distribution, and an inventory of cnidarians, mollusks, bryozoans, brachiopods, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms and fishes that inhabit these important deep-sea coral communities in the CPNNP.

Title Fauna diversity in Madracis spp. coral patches in the Colombian Caribbean
Identifier https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2023.21.0105
Study Area Description The CPNNP is located in the Colombian Caribbean (fig. 1) on the continental margin off the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Archipelago of San Bernardo, approximately 12 km from one of the areas with major development of shallow-water coral reefs in Colombia, Corales del Rosario y de San Bernardo National Natural Park, and 32 km from the nearest point on the continent (Barú Peninsula). The area is characterized by a strong influence of continental inputs, relatively transparent waters, and large mosaics combining bio-clastic sediment plains and extensive development of coral reefs (Díaz et al., 2000).
Design Description The work circumscribed biodiversity data where Madracis coral patches occur southwest of the CPNNP, at depths of 107 and 230 m. These patches are located within the coordinates 9° 46' 18.208" N - 9° 50' 33.101" N and 76° 11' 10.099'' W - 76° 14' 39.688'' W (fig. 1). Madracis colonies have been identified as a species complex that includes M. myriaster (the most abundant), M. asperula and M. brueggemanni (Santodomingo et al., 2007) (fig. 2) given the difficulty to differentiate M. myriaster from its sister species M. brueggemanni (Ballesteros-Contreras et al., 2022). According to the digital elevation model (DEM), they are on a moderate slope between 4º to 11º in the transition between the continental shelf and the shelf-break scarp, probably covered by recent sediment flows, and over a sliding crown (Santodomingo et al., 2007; Morales et al., 2017). Biodiversity data were compiled from four research expeditions carried out in the southwest area of the CPNNP (table 1): (1) “Macrofauna II” (2001), a baseline survey on soft bottoms in the Colombian Caribbean with collections made with an epibenthic trawl net (9 × 1 m opening; 3 knots for 10 min) (fig. 3A) (Reyes et al., 2005). (2) “Marcoral'' expedition (2005), a study for mapping and characterizing the occurrence of Madracis corals using a single-beam echo sounder, collections with a Van Veen dredge (60 l, 0.03 m2) (fig. 3B) and a heavy-chained rocky dredge (1 × 0.4 m opening; 1.5 knots for 5 min) (Santodomingo et al., 2007; Santodomingo et al., 2013). (3) “PNN Corales Profundidad'' expedition (2015), to perform detailed geomorphological mapping (Morales et al., 2017) supported by the first footage obtained using ROV Diavolo II (fig. 3C) with a front camera (¼′′ CCD 380 I TV-lines, 0.1 Lux/F = 1.2) and 10 cm parallel lasers for scale. Positioning was estimated using an ultra-short baseline (USBL) mounted on the vehicle (Cedeño-Posso et al., 2002). (4) “PNN Madracis” expedition (2016), a complementary expedition for sampling areas using a multipurpose drift-cam (CADEM) with a modified Van Veen grab (0.066 m2) to collect samples of sediments (fig. 3D). The drift-cam incorporates high-definition cameras capable of acquiring color images with 61° range, 120x zoom and 2200 lumen LED lights, both with titanium casing resistant up to 4000 m depth, a multimedia tracking console, and adaptable protection cages for different environments.

Sampling Methods

The work circumscribed biodiversity data where Madracis coral patches occur southwest of the CPNNP, at depths of 107 and 230 m. These patches are located within the coordinates 9° 46' 18.208" N - 9° 50' 33.101" N and 76° 11' 10.099'' W - 76° 14' 39.688'' W (fig. 1). Madracis colonies have been identified as a species complex that includes M. myriaster (the most abundant), M. asperula and M. brueggemanni (Santodomingo et al., 2007) (fig. 2) given the difficulty to differentiate M. myriaster from its sister species M. brueggemanni (Ballesteros-Contreras et al., 2022). According to the digital elevation model (DEM), they are on a moderate slope between 4º to 11º in the transition between the continental shelf and the shelf-break scarp, probably covered by recent sediment flows, and over a sliding crown (Santodomingo et al., 2007; Morales et al., 2017). Biodiversity data were compiled from four research expeditions carried out in the southwest area of the CPNNP (table 1): (1) “Macrofauna II” (2001), a baseline survey on soft bottoms in the Colombian Caribbean with collections made with an epibenthic trawl net (9 × 1 m opening; 3 knots for 10 min) (fig. 3A) (Reyes et al., 2005). (2) “Marcoral'' expedition (2005), a study for mapping and characterizing the occurrence of Madracis corals using a single-beam echo sounder, collections with a Van Veen dredge (60 l, 0.03 m2) (fig. 3B) and a heavy-chained rocky dredge (1 × 0.4 m opening; 1.5 knots for 5 min) (Santodomingo et al., 2007; Santodomingo et al., 2013). (3) “PNN Corales Profundidad'' expedition (2015), to perform detailed geomorphological mapping (Morales et al., 2017) supported by the first footage obtained using ROV Diavolo II (fig. 3C) with a front camera (¼′′ CCD 380 I TV-lines, 0.1 Lux/F = 1.2) and 10 cm parallel lasers for scale. Positioning was estimated using an ultra-short baseline (USBL) mounted on the vehicle (Cedeño-Posso et al., 2002). (4) “PNN Madracis” expedition (2016), a complementary expedition for sampling areas using a multipurpose drift-cam (CADEM) with a modified Van Veen grab (0.066 m2) to collect samples of sediments (fig. 3D). The drift-cam incorporates high-definition cameras capable of acquiring color images with 61° range, 120x zoom and 2200 lumen LED lights, both with titanium casing resistant up to 4000 m depth, a multimedia tracking console, and adaptable protection cages for different environments.

Study Extent The CPNNP is located in the Colombian Caribbean (fig. 1) on the continental margin off the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Archipelago of San Bernardo, approximately 12 km from one of the areas with major development of shallow-water coral reefs in Colombia, Corales del Rosario y de San Bernardo National Natural Park, and 32 km from the nearest point on the continent (Barú Peninsula). The area is characterized by a strong influence of continental inputs, relatively transparent waters, and large mosaics combining bio-clastic sediment plains and extensive development of coral reefs (Díaz et al., 2000).
Quality Control The quality of the videos (380 TV-lines) allowed recognition only of common taxa larger than 10 cm (cnidarians, crustaceans, echinoderms and fish), with exceptional cases of fauna > 5-10 cm such as cup corals with extended polyps and crustaceans. Biological samples that remained unsorted from Marcoral and PNN Madracis (Bryozoa and Annelida) were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Identifications were confirmed from videos based on specimens deposited in the collections of the Museo de Historia Natural Marina de Colombia (MHNMC) – Makuriwa of INVEMAR in Santa Marta, Colombia. Data quality controls were applied to the species previously identified in “Macrofauna II” and Marcoral campaigns through the validation of their current taxonomic status. Likewise, taxonomic levels higher than family were excluded from the analysis to avoid uncertain identifications and data duplicity, except for specimens identified in the orders Antipatharia, Comatulida and Ophiurida that correspond to unique specimens observed in the ROV videos. Consulted updated taxonomic identities and classifications in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS, 2022) and Eschmeyer´s Catalog of Fishes (Fricke et al., 2020). All biological data and collections are available in SiBM and it stored voucher specimens at the Makuriwa Museum. Our analyses use the concept of species diversity in terms of species/morphospecies richness. Geo references for stations were verified by the Geographic Information Systems Laboratory of INVEMAR (LabSiG) through ArcGIS Desktop - ArcMap 10.6 (2018) Software.

Method step description:

  1. Coordinates and sampling methods for the 14 stations analyzed in this review are summarized in table 1.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Cedeño–Posso, C., Polanco F., A., Borrero–Pérez, G. H., Montoya–Cadavid, E., Flórez, P., Yepes–Narváez, V., Cárdenas–Oliva, A., Benavides–Serrato, M., Gracia C., A., Santodomingo, N., 2023. Fauna diversity in Madracis spp. coral patches in the Colombian Caribbean. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 21: 105–128, DOI: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2023.21.0105 https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2023.21.0105

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers 10.15470/vqshir
a74fb0ac-daf4-4bf1-9ca7-6d3d5ccd74cb
https://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=diversity_coral_patches_colombian_caribbean