This dataset comprises the simultaneous monitoring of about 50 high mountain lakes in the Spanish’s Sierra Nevada carried out in collaboration with government agencies and local communities as part of a citizen science campaign. Standard monitoring protocols were used to collect data on various physical (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, water clarity), chemical (nutrients, major cations and anions, chlorophyll a, alkalinity), and biological parameters (bacteria, zooplankton) in two successive years. High mountain lakes are ideal sites to study and understand global change processes. The utilisation of these systems as sentinels of global change can be attributed to various characteristics, such as: modest catchment areas, oligotrophic waters with limited nutrients, remote accessibility, relatively good ecological health, elevated altitudes and harsh environmental conditions, or the presence of relatively uncomplicated biological communities with rapid renewal rates, among others. The involvement of the community in Sierra Nevada Long-Term Monitoring Programs serves as an invaluable complement to scientific endeavours aimed at monitoring environmental changes, as it contributes to alleviate personnel and resource shortcomings (Villar-Argaiz et al. 2022).
The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 102 records.
2 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Villar Argáiz M, Pérez-Martínez C, Llodrà Llabrés J M, Conde-Porcuna J M, Ramos Rodríguez E, Picazo Mota F, Martínez-López J, López Rodríguez M J, Carrillo Lechuga P, Medina Sánchez J M, Corral Arredondo E (2023). Biological and physico-chemical characterization of shallow lakes in Spain’s Sierra Nevada. Version 2.0. Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia. Samplingevent dataset. https://doi.org/10.15470/xuoj6b
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: d748450c-605e-4768-a0db-2299cbbfc567. Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.
Samplingevent; chlorophyll-a; nutrients; cations; anions; phosphorous; nitrogen; bacteria; zooplankton; high mountain lakes; Sierra Nevada
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Sierra Nevada, situated in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula within Spain, spans the provinces of Granada and Almería. This mountain range extends over 2,273 square km and reaches its highest point at 3,479 meters a.s.l. at the Mulhacén summit. Due to its southern European location, proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, and considerable elevation, Sierra Nevada boasts a diverse range of climatic conditions, encompassing five of the six bioclimatic zones found in the Mediterranean region, ranging from the thermo-mediterranean to the crioro-mediterranean. The Sierra Nevada Natural Area boasts an extensive hydrographic network, comprised of rivers, streams, and high mountain lakes, primarily nourished by the snowmelt from its towering peaks. This dataset covers high elevations shallow lakes of glacial origin located between 2,700 and 3,100 meters a.s.l., on small catchment areas above treeline characterised by metamorphic siliceous bedrocks, poorly developed soils and steep topographic gradients.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [37.014, -3.437], North East [37.124, -3.264]|
This dataset includes a total of 2,649 occurrence records of bacteria and zooplankton, the latter represented by 14 families, 20 genera and 19 species.
|Start Date / End Date||2020-07-10 / 2022-07-26|
1-The Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (https://obsnev.es/) is an ambitious project promoted by the Department of Sustainability, Environment and Blue Economy of the Regional Government of Andalusia with the scientific coordination of the University of Granada, in order to monitor the effects of global change in the Sierra Nevada protected area. For this purpose, the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory has developed a monitoring programme and an information system for appropriate data management. 2-Smart EcoMountains (University of Granada-Sierra Nevada, Spain) is the Thematic Center on Mountain Ecosystems of the European Research Infrastructure LifeWatch-ERIC (https://smartecomountains.lifewatch.eu/). The main objective of the project is the long-term evaluation of mountain ecosystems' functions and services in the context of global change, using remote sensing, computing and new information and communication technologies advanced tools. The Smart EcoMountains project pursues three main objectives: 1) generate information on biodiversity, ecosystem services and global change in mountain ecosystems; 2) develop new technological tools and services that facilitate the exchange, localisation, access and analysis of data by scientists, in order to improve our knowledge of mountain ecosystems and the main global change processes affecting them; 3) develop tools to inform society about the most important global change processes affecting mountain biodiversity and ecosystem services, and support environmental managers and policymakers in science-based decision making. 3-REMOLADOX project, under the umbrella of the LifeWatch-ERIC Smart EcoMountais, is focussed on the study of high mountain lakes in Sierra Nevada, as ideal sites in which to capture signals of change in global stressors (precipitation, ultraviolet radiation, aeolian dust deposition or warming, among others), and serve as “crystal balls” for forecasting what is to come in lower altitudes in the future. 4-MIXOPLASCLIM project integrates observational and experimental studies, with a double generic objective: (i) Quantify the degree of contamination by plastics and their polluting derivatives (e.g., BPA), as well as the magnitude of the interaction between climatic change stressors and pollutants derived from plastics in the food webs of various Mediterranean aquatic ecosystems, including the high-mountain lakes of the Sierra Nevada. (ii) Develop a bioremediation tool based on mixotrophic algae-bacteria consortia to eliminate plastics and their contaminating derivatives. 5-LACEN (OAPN 2403S/2017) project pursues two main objectives related to this database: 1) develop an algorithm to know chlorophyll-a concentration of Sierra Nevada lakes through satellite images; 2) generate a database on Sierra Nevada lake features (herbivory and visitor pressure, nutrient concentration, morphometric features…) to explain the chlorophyll-a concentration and its changes in the lakes as a tool for science-based decision making.
|Title||Several projects: 1-Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory | 2-Smart EcoMountains: Thematic Center on Mountain Ecosystem & Remote sensing, Deep learning-AI e-Services University of Granada-Sierra Nevada | 3-REsilience of high-MOuntain LAkes to chronic, pulsed and fluctuating Disturbances of global stress factors: Observational and eXperimental approaches: (REMOLADOX) | 4-Mixotrophs-bacteria consortia: bio-tools for the mitigation of plastic pollution under a scenario of global climate change in aquatic ecosystems (MIXOPLASCLIM) | 5-Lagos centinelas de cambio global en los Parques Nacionales: análisis multidisciplinar de los últimos 6000 años|
|Identifier||1-OBSNEV | 2-LIFEWATCH-2019-10-UGR-4 | 3-PID2020-118872RB-I00 | 4-TED2021-131262B-I00 | 5-OAPN 2403S/2017|
|Funding||This work was conducted under the agreement “Convenio de colaboración entre la Consejería de Sostenibilidad, Medio Ambiente y Economía Azul de la Junta de Andalucía y la Universidad de Granada para el desarrollo de actividades vinculadas al Observatorio de Cambio Global de Sierra Nevada, en el marco de la Red de Observatorios de Cambio Global de Andalucía” and the project Smart EcoMountains “Thematic Center on Mountain Ecosystem & Remote sensing, Deep learning-AI e-Services University of Granada-Sierra Nevada” (LifeWatch-2019-10-UGR-04), which has been co-funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation through the ERDF funds from the Spanish Pluriregional Operational Program 2014-2020 (POPE), LifeWatch-ERIC action line.|
The personnel involved in the project:
- Principal Investigator
- Principal Investigator
- Principal Investigator
- Principal Investigator
- Principal Investigator
1. Sampling: field samples were taken during the ice-free period when there was maximum biological activity in July or early August. In the smaller shallow lakes (ca. 1 meter or less), water samples were taken aleatory around the perimeter using a pole-mounted buckets. For larger lakes, water samples were taken at the deepest part of the lake using an integrating water sampler of the upper waters (ca. 1.2 m). Water was mixed in a container and subsamples taken for the quantitative assessment of bacteria, zooplankton, macronutrients (total and dissolved nutrients), major cations and anions, and alkalinity. 2. Physico-chemical characterization: temperature was measured in situ using precision portable thermometers. Turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, NTU, conductivity and salinity were determined within three 3 hours after sampled using a YSI ProDSS probe. 3. Nutrients, major cations/anions, and alkalinity: total nitrogen and total phosphorus samples were persulfate digested and measured as nitrate and as soluble reactive phosphorus, respectively, by means of standard spectrophotometric methods (APHA, 1998). These methods were also used to measure total dissolved nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus after filtration through Whatman GF/F filters. Major cations and anions were measured in ion chromatography. Total alkalinity was measured by the acid tritation method (APHA, 1998). 4. Bacteria and zooplankton: for the quantification of bacteria aliquots were fixed with paraformaldehyde, stained with SYBR Green I DNA and determined using a Becton Dickinson FACScan flow cytometer and Yellow-green-1 µm beads (Lozano et al. 2022). Zooplankton were identified and counted with the aid of an inverted microscope. 5. Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) sampling and analysis: water samples were filtered through pre-combusted glass fibre filters (Whatman GF/F, pore size = 0.7 µm). Filters were frozen at -20ºC until the analysis. For analysis, chl-a was extracted with 7 ml 99% absolute ethanol for analysis during 24 h in refrigerated and dark conditions. Chl-a concentration was determined spectrophotometrically using a Perkin Elmer UV-Vis 25 spectrophotometer with 5-cm path-length cuvettes (Jeffrey & Humphrey, 1975; Ritchie, 2006).
|Study Extent||The dataset corresponds to the simultaneous sampling (carried out by multidisciplinary groups of researchers, citizen volunteers and environmental agents) of a set of 55 and 48 high mountain shallow lakes in the Spanish’s Sierra Nevada during the years 2020 and 2022, respectively. The year 2022 corresponded to a relatively anomalous year in which Sierra Nevada was subjected to a massive influx of aerosols from the Sahara. See exact location of the shallow lakes in https://lagunasdesierranevada.es/lagunas/|
|Quality Control||1. Sampling: the multidisciplinary teams (composed of citizen volunteers and environmental agents) have been led and supervised and researchers. 2. Digitalisation: all data has been revised by experts before their introduction in the dataset. 3. Storage: data is stored in Linaria (https://linaria.obsnev.es/), the institutional data repository of the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory. Linaria is a normalised database focused on ecology and biodiversity related-data and it is developed in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS relational database management system (RDBMS). 4. Taxonomic validation: scientific names were reviewed by experts and were checked with the GBIF backbone taxonomy using the species matching tool (https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup). 5. Coordinates validation: the sampling event’ coordinates are the same as those that locate the lakes on this official website https://lagunasdesierranevada.es/lagunas/. 6. Standardisation: the standardisation to Darwin Core was done according to the practices recommended by the TDWG guidelines (https://dwc.tdwg.org/terms/).|
Method step description:
- 1. Field sampling, measurement of environmental variables (see Sampling Description section). 2. Sampling processing in the laboratory (see Sampling Description section). 3. Data storage in Linaria (https://linaria.obsnev.es/), the institutional data repository of the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory. 4. Standardisation to the Darwin Core structure (De Pooter et al., 2017) as sampling event data. It contains, specifically: 102 events, 2,649 occurrences, and 2,071 records of associated measurements (23 variables). The Darwin Core elements included in the Event Core are: eventID, modified, language, institutionCode, ownerInstitutionCode, datasetName, license, eventDate, year, month, day, continent, country, countryCode, highergeography, waterBody, minimumElevationInMeters, maximumElevationInMeters, samplingProtocol, decimalLatitude, decimalLongitude, geodeticDatum. For the Occurrence Extension are: occurrenceID, catalogNumber, collectionCode, eventID, eventDate, organismQuantity, organismQuantityType, basisOfRecord, scientificName, taxonRank, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, scientificNameAuthorship, occurrenceStatus. For the Measurement or Fact Extension table, the Darwin Core elements included are: measurementID, eventID, measurementType, measurementValue, measurementUnit, measurementMethod. In the eventDate element the local time zone (Europe/Brussels) is indicated as an offset from UTC (conforming to ISO 8601). Special values in the measurementValue element: “BDL” (Below Detection Limit). 5. The resulting dataset was published through the Integrated Publishing Toolkit of the Spanish node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (http://ipt.gbif.es).
- APHA, American Public Health Association (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.
- De Pooter, D., Appeltans, W., Bailly, N., Bristol, S., Deneudt, K., Eliezer, M., Fujioka, E., Giorgetti, A., Goldstein, P., Lewis, M., Lipizer, M., Mackay, K., Marin, M., Moncoiffé, G., Nikolopoulou, S., Provoost, P., Rauch, S., Roubicek, A., Torres, C., van de Putte, A., … Hernandez, F. (2017). Toward a new data standard for combined marine biological and environmental datasets - expanding OBIS beyond species occurrences. Biodiversity data journal, (5), e10989. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.5.e10989
- Lozano, I. L., González-Olalla, J. M., Medina Sánchez, J. M. (2022). New insights for the renewed phytoplankton-bacteria coupling concept: the role of the trophic web. Microbial Ecology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-022-02159-6
- Ritchie, R. J. (2006). Consistent sets of spectrophotometric chlorophyll equations for acetone, methanol and ethanol solvents. Photosynthesis research, 89, 27-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11120-006-9065-9
- Jeffrey S.W. & Humphrey G.F. (1975) New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophyll a, b, c1 and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton. Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 167, 191–194.
- Villar-Argaiz, M., Corral Arredondo, E., Fajardo-Merlo, M. C., Barea-Azcón, J. M. (2022). Advancing open science in Sierra Nevada: Current citizen science campaigns. In: R. Zamora and M. Oliva editors. The Landscape of Sierra Nevada. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.