Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)
We describe a dataset of Passerine bird communities in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high-mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrences data from bird surveys carried out in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each contact both birds number and distance to transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrences records were collected and 55694 measurements recorded. All records belong to Passeriformes order. 16 families and 44 genera were collected. Most of the taxa of the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 27,847 records.
1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:
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Researchers should cite this work as follows:
iEcolab, University of Granada-Andalusian Environmental Center (Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research) (2015) Passerine bird communities in a high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain). 27847 data records. Contributed by University of Granada, OBSNEV, Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Andalucía, Archila Gallegos F, Arias Navarro A, Barea-Azcón JM, Bueno de la Rosa V; Cobos L; Contreras Parody F, Debén Duarte C, Foronda J, Galdo Fuentes P, Hernández Soto I, Lopera E, López Martínez A, López-Sanjuán R, Lozano Rubio AJ; Marín Escribano JM; Martín Jaramillo J; Martos García C, Morillas Fernández D, Pulido Poyal C, Rodríguez G. Online at http://www.gbif. es/ipt/resource.do?r=passerine
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: bb1c7420-fbb5-46e2-87ad-658081360694. Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.
Occurrence; Observation; Passerine birds; Sierra Nevada (Spain); global change monitoring; mediterranean high-mountain; abundance
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Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, SE Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. covering more than 2000 km2 (Figure 1). The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by cold winters and hot summers, with pronounced summer drought (July-August). The annual average temperature decreases in altitude from 12–16°C below 1500 m to 0°C above 3000 m a.s.l., and the annual average precipitation is about 600 mm. Additionally, the complex orography of the mountains causes strong climatic contrasts between the sunny, dry south-facing slopes and the shaded, wetter north-facing slopes. Annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the lowest parts of the mountain range to more than 700 mm in the summit areas. Winter precipitation is mainly in the form of snow above 2000 m of altitude. This mountain area comprises 27 habitat types from the Habitat Directive. Sierra Nevada protected area contains 72 animal species (44 breeding birds, 17 mammals, 5 invertebrates, 2 amphibians and 4 reptiles) and 20 plant species listed in the Annex II and/or in the Annex IV of Habitat or Bird directives. It is thus considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean region (Blanca 1996, Blanca et al. 1998, Cañadas et al. 2014). Sierra Nevada has several legal protections: Biosphere Reserve MAB Committee UNESCO; Special Area of conservation (Natura 2000 network); Natural Park and National Park. The area includes 61 municipalities with more than 90, 000 inhabitants. The main economic activities are agriculture, tourism, cattle raising, beekeeping, mining, and skiing (Bonet el al. 2010).
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [36.87, -3.69], North East [37.26, -2.56]|
This dataset includes a total of 27847 records of the order Passeriformes. There are 16 families represented in this dataset. Nearly one third of the specimens belong to the family Fringillidae. A total of 44 genera are represented in this collection, with Emberiza, Cyanistes, Turdus, Fringilla and Parus having the highest number of records (Figure 3). There are 70 taxa of this dataset included in the European Red List (BirdLife International 2015): 67 categorized as Least Concern; 2 Not evaluated, and 1 taxa considered as Vulnerable. According to Spanish Red List (Madroño et al. 2004), 3 taxa of this dataset are considered under Near Threatened category, 1 taxa as Vulnerable and 1 as Least Concern categories respectively
|Family||Aegithalidae, Alaudidae, Certhiidae, Cinclidae, Corvidae, Fringillidae, Laniidae, Motacillidae, Muscicapidae, Paridae, Passeridae, Phylloscopidae, Sittidae, Sturnidae, Sylviidae, Turdidae|
|Genus||Aegithalos, Alauda, Anthus, Carduelis, Certhia, Cinclus, Coccothraustes, Corvus, Cyanistes, Emberiza, Erithacus, Fringilla, Galerida, Garrulus, Hippolais, Lanius, Lophophanes, Loxia, Lullula, Luscinia, Miliaria, Monticola, Motacilla, Muscicapa, Oenanthe, Oriolus, Parus, Passer, Periparus, Petronia, Phoenicurus, Phylloscopus, Pica, Prunella, Pyrrhocorax, Regulus, Saxicola, Serinus, Sitta, Spinus, Sturnus, Sylvia, Troglodytes, Turdus|
|Start Date / End Date||2008-03-01 / 2015-04-01|
No Description available
|Title||Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory|
|Funding||Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory is funded by the Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio (Junta de Andalucía) through the European Union (FEDER project) and by the Spanish Government (via “Fundación Biodiversidad”, which is a Public Foundation). Some activities carried out by the OBSNEV (data analysis, quantification of ecosystem services, harmonization of monitoring methods, integration in major cyberinfrastructures, etc.) are funded by the European Commission thanks to different projects (FP7: EU BON; H2020: eLTER, ECOPOTENTIAL; Life: ADAPTAMED).|
|Study Area Description||Sierra Nevada (Andalusia, SE Spain), is a mountainous region with an altitudinal range between 860 m and 3482 m a.s.l. covering more than 2000 km2 (Figure 1). The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by cold winters and hot summers, with pronounced summer drought (July-August). The annual average temperature decreases in altitude from 12–16°C below 1500 m to 0°C above 3000 m a.s.l., and the annual average precipitation is about 600 mm. Additionally, the complex orography of the mountains causes strong climatic contrasts between the sunny, dry south-facing slopes and the shaded, wetter north-facing slopes. Annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the lowest parts of the mountain range to more than 700 mm in the summit areas. Winter precipitation is mainly in the form of snow above 2000 m of altitude. This mountain area comprises 27 habitat types from the Habitat Directive. Sierra Nevada protected area contains 72 animal species (44 breeding birds, 17 mammals, 5 invertebrates, 2 amphibians and 4 reptiles) and 20 plant species listed in the Annex II and/or in the Annex IV of Habitat or Bird directives. It is thus considered one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean region (Blanca 1996, Blanca et al. 1998, Cañadas et al. 2014). Sierra Nevada has several legal protections: Biosphere Reserve MAB Committee UNESCO; Special Area of conservation (Natura 2000 network); Natural Park and National Park. The area includes 61 municipalities with more than 90, 000 inhabitants. The main economic activities are agriculture, tourism, cattle raising, beekeeping, mining, and skiing (Bonet el al. 2010).|
|Design Description||Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV) (Bonet et al. 2011) is a long-term research project that is being undertaken at Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve (SE Spain). It is intended to compile the information necessary for identifying as early as possible the impacts of global change, in order to design management mechanisms to minimize these impacts and adapt the system to new scenarios (Aspizua et al. 2010, Bonet el al. 2010). The general objectives are to: • Evaluate the functioning of ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada Nature Reserve, their natural processes and dynamics over a medium-term timescale. • Identify population dynamics, phenological changes, and conservation issues regarding key species that could be considered indicators of ecological processes. • Identify the impact of global change on monitored species, ecosystems, and natural resources, providing an overview of trends of change that could help foster ecosystem resilience. • Design mechanisms to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of management activities performed in the Sierra Nevada in order to implement an adaptive management framework. • Help to disseminate information of general interest concerning the values and importance of Sierra Nevada. The Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory has four cornerstones: • A monitoring program with 40 methodologies that collect information on ecosystem functioning (Aspizua et al. 2012, 2014). • An information system to store and manage all the information gathered (http://obsnev.es/linaria.html - Pérez-Pérez et al. 2012; Free access upon registration). • A plan to promote adaptive management of natural resources using the data amassed through the monitoring programme. • An outreach programme to disseminate all the available information to potential users (see News Portal of the project at http://obsnev.es and the wiki of the project at http://wiki.obsnev.es, Pérez-Luque et al. 2012) The Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory is linked to other national (Zamora and Bonet 2011) and international monitoring networks: GLOCHAMORE (Global Change in Mountain Regions) (Björnsen 2005), GLOCHAMOST (Global Change in Mountain Sites) (Schaaf 2009), LTER-Spain (Long-Term Ecological Research), LifeWatch (Basset and Los 2012), etc. This project is also involved in several European projects like MS-MONINA (FP7 project. www.ms-monina.eu), EU BON (Hoffmann et al. 2014), eLTER (H2020 project. www.lter-europe.net/projects/eLTER), ECOPOTENTIAL (H2020 project. www.ecopotential-project.eu/) and ADAPTAMED (Life project).|
The personnel involved in the project:
Sampling procedure was the line-transect method (Verner, 1985), with a bandwidth of 50 m, 25 m on each side of the line (Barea-Azcón et al 2012, 2014). A total of 16 transect were sampled with lengths ranged from 1.9 to 3 km. Sight and sound records within the sample area were accepted as contacts. All transects were sampled in the early morning, under appropriate climatic conditions. The observer walks at a constant speed of 2 to 4 km/h. Transects are repeated at least once per month provided that the conditions of snow cover permitting. This implies that the sites located on the higher elevations are sampled only from late spring to early autumn.
|Study Extent||This dataset covers four representative habitats within Sierra Nevada mountain range: Pyrenean oak forest , thorny thickets on the edge of the forest, common juniper and Spanish juniper scrublands and high-summit ecosystems. These ecosystems were selected based on criteria of singularity and ecological functionality in the context of Sierra Nevada (Barea-Azcón et al. 2012, 2014) and can be described as follow: - Pyrenean oak forest: Mediterranean woodland composed mainly of relict Quercus pyrenaica and some dominant scrubland species (i.e. Berberis hispanica, Prunus ramburii, Rosa canina, Crataegus monogyna and Adenocarpus decorticans). These forests show strong evidences of past management that determine their current structure and diversity. These management is mainly based on charcoal, pastureland creation, and wood production until the 1950s, so that the current trees are mostly resprouts of 60-70 years old. The target localities (n=4) are located at an average elevation of 1650 m a.s.l. (1600-1750 m a.s.l.) and are distributed in the south, west, north and east slopes of Sierra Nevada, reflecting all the ecological conditions of the Pyrenean oak forest in the study area (Pérez-Luque et al. 2013). -Thornscrubs: Typical areas dominated by thorny thickets on the edge of the forest or as result of recent colonization of abandoned arable lands. Berberis hispanica, Prunus ramburii, Rosa canina, Crataegus monogyna are dominant but other species as Lonicera arborea or even Sorbus spp. This open habitat is very important for breeding birds in the study area and also for winter visitors due to a great production of fruits from the end of the summer to the beginning of winter. Transect (n=4) in this habitat are located between 1450 and 2060 m a.s.l. (average: 1790 m a.s.l.). -Common juniper and Spanish juniper scrublands: vegetation in these localities is composed mainly of common juniper (Juniperus communis), Spanish juniper (Juniperus Sabina). Cytisus galianoi and Genista baetica are also important species in these ecosystems. These scrublands rarely exceed 60 cm in height and appear intermingled with rocks and stony ground. Transects (n=4) located in this ecosystems comprise an elevational range from 2000 to 2300 m a.s.l. (average: 2150 m a.s.l.). -High-summit ecosystems: composed by typical Alpine landscape. These ecosystems are characterized by rocky outcrops that originated from glacial activity, pastureland, small snow beds, and glacial lagoons. The four transects that represents this Mediterranean high mountain habitat comprise an elevational gradient from 2280 to 3100 m a.s.l., with an average elevation of 2580 m a.s.l.|
|Quality Control||The sampling transects were georeferenced using a Garmin eTrex Legend GPS (WGS 84 Datum) with an accuracy of ±5 m. We also used colour digital orthophotographs provided by the Andalusian Cartography Institute and GIS (ArcGIS 9.2; ESRI, Redlands, California, USA) to verify that the geographical coordinates of the transect were correct (Chapman and Wieczorek 2006). For the identification of the specimes several fields guides were used (De Juana and Varela 2000, Jonsson 2001). The scientific names were checked with database of the IOC World Bird List (v 5.52) (Gill and Donkster 2015). We also used the R package taxize (Chamberlain and Szocs 2013, Chamberlain et al. 2014) to verify the taxonomical classification. We also performed validation procedures (Chapman 2005a, 2005b) (geopraphic coordinate format, coordinates within country/provincial boundaries, absence of ASCII anomalous characters in the dataset) with DARWIN_TEST (v3.2) software (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008).|
Method step description:
- All data were stored in a normalized database (PostgreSQL) and incorporated into the Information System of Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory. Taxonomic and spatial validations were made on this database (see Quality-control description). A custom-made SQL view of the database was performed to gather occurrence data and other variables associated with occurrence data, specifically: • Birds Count: Number of individual recorded by the observer within transect (see Sampling description) • Distance: Distance of the contact (bird) to transect line. The distance is estimated by eye. The occurrence and measurement data were accommodated to fulfill the Darwin Core Standard (Wieczorek et al. 2009, 2012). We used Darwin Core Archive Validator tool (http://tools.gbif.org/dwca-validator/) to check whether the dataset meets Darwin Core specifications. The Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT v2.0.5) (Robertson et al. 2014) of the Spanish node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (http://www.gbif.es/ipt) was used both to upload the Darwin Core Archive and to fill out the metadata. The Darwin Core elements for the occurrence data included in the dataset are: occurrenceId, modified, language, basisOfRecord, institutionCode, collectionCode, catalogNumber, scientificName, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, scientificNameAuthorship, continent, country, countryCode, stateProvince, county, locality, minimumElevationInMeters, maximumElevationInMeters, decimalLongitude, decimalLatitude, coordinateUncertaintyinMeters, geodeticDatum, recordedBy, day, month, year, EventDate. For the measurement data, the Darwin Core elements included were: occurrenceId, measurementID, measurementType, measurementValue, measurementAccuracy, measurementUnit, measurementDeterminedDate, measurementDeterminedBy, measurementMethod.
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