CHECKLIST

Community of macroparasites of the Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes, Sphyraenidae) from the north coast of Peru

Última versión Publicado por Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona en 12 de enero de 2022 Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
This study aimed to report the community of macroparasites of the Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) from the north coast of Peru. From September to October 2019, 138 specimens of S. ensis were acquired from Caleta de Zorritos, Contralmirante Villar Province, Tumbes, on the north coast of Peru. The community of parasites found consisted of nine species of parasites including monogeneans, copepods, trematodes and nematodes. The total body length of the fish was negatively correlated with the mean intensity of infestation of Pseudochauhanea sp. The mean abundance of Pseudochauhanea sp. also showed a marked significant difference between the populations of male and female fish, being more associated with males. We provide a list of macropara... Más

Descripción

This study aimed to report the community of macroparasites of the Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) from the north coast of Peru. From September to October 2019, 138 specimens of S. ensis were acquired from Caleta de Zorritos, Contralmirante Villar Province, Tumbes, on the north coast of Peru. The community of parasites found consisted of nine species of parasites including monogeneans, copepods, trematodes and nematodes. The total body length of the fish was negatively correlated with the mean intensity of infestation of Pseudochauhanea sp. The mean abundance of Pseudochauhanea sp. also showed a marked significant difference between the populations of male and female fish, being more associated with males. We provide a list of macroparasites recorded in fish of the genus Sphyraena in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Registros

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¿Cómo referenciar?

Los usuarios deben citar este trabajo de la siguiente manera:

Minaya D, Ferre D, García M, Alvariño L, Iannacone J (2022): Community of macroparasites of the Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes, Sphyraenidae) from the north coast of Peru. v1.5. Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15470/5htffh

Derechos

Los usuarios deben respetar los siguientes derechos de uso:

El publicador y propietario de los derechos de este trabajo es Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

Registro GBIF

Este recurso ha sido registrado en GBIF con el siguiente UUID: f069b871-a725-455b-94b5-e88874de6e0c.  Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona publica este recurso, y está registrado en GBIF como un publicador de datos avalado por GBIF Spain.

Palabras clave

Ecology; Ectoparasites; Helminths; Ichthyology; Parasitology; Checklist

Contactos

¿Quién creó el recurso?:

D Minaya
Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal
Lima
PE
D Ferre
Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal
Lima
PE
M. García
Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal
15007 Lima
PE
L. Alvariño
Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal
15007 Lima
PE
J. Iannacone
Universidad Científica del Sur
Lima
PE

¿Quién puede resolver dudas acerca del recurso?:

J. Iannacone
Universidad Científica del Sur
15067 Lima
PE

¿Quién documentó los metadatos?:

J. Iannacone
Universidad Científica del Sur
15067 Lima
PE

¿Quién más está asociado con el recurso?:

Proveedor de los Metadatos
Montse Ferrer
Managing Editor AMZ
Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
Ps Picasso s/n
08003 Barcelona
Barcelona

Cobertura geográfica

Specimens of the S. ensis were collected from Caleta de Zorritos, Contralmirante Villar Province, Tumbes, on the north coast of Peru.

Coordenadas límite Latitud Mínima Longitud Mínima [-4,014, -81,914], Latitud Máxima Longitud Máxima [-3,338, -80,388]

Cobertura taxonómica

No hay descripción disponible

Class  Monogenea,  Hexanauplia,  Trematoda,  Chromadorea
Familia  Chauhaneidae,  Microcotylidae,  Thoracocotylidae,  Paramonaxinidae,  Caligidae,  Lernaeopodidae,  Pseudocycnidae,  Bomolochidae,  Caligidae,  Didymozoidae,  Anisakidae

Cobertura temporal

Fecha Inicial / Fecha Final 2019-05-01 / 2019-10-31

Datos del proyecto

Macroparasite communities in marine fish are composed of ectoparasites and endoparasites (Violante-González et al., 2019). These two groups exhibit different transmission strategies. Ectoparasites, for example, are often transmitted between individual hosts through contact, whereas endoparasites use trophic transmission routes (Violante-González et al., 2019). Biotic factors (nutritional component, age, host density, vagility, social behavior, and host body size) and environmental abiotic factors can cause fluctuations in the richness and diversity of the macroparasite species (Henríquez and González, 2012; Bellay, 2020; Santos-Bustos, 2020; Llopis-Belenguer et al., 2020; Minaya et al., 2020c). Macroparasites comprise a high proportion of global species diversity and provide essential functions and services to ecosystems (Bellay, 2020). Several species of marine fish of the genus Sphyraena Artedi, 1793 have been evaluated in relation to their macroparasite communities in Kuwait (Abdul-Salam and Sreelatha, 1993; 1995), China (Zhang et al., 2003), India (Ravichandran et al., 2007), Mexico (Gómez del Prado-Rosas et al., 2007), New Caledonia (Moravec and Justine, 2015), Australia (Moravec and Beveridge, 2017) and Tunisia (Boussellaa et al., 2018), among others. Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) is a pelagic-neritic marine species found in the Eastern Pacific from Mexico to Chile, and including the Galapagos Islands (Froese and Pauly, 2020; SNP, 2020). Pacific barracuda inhabit depths in the range of 10 to 60 m. They can be found in waters with sandy and muddy bottoms, in coral reefs, and in rocky areas near the coast (Robertson and Allen, 2015). The diet of this barracuda consists mainly of bony neritic fish that form dense schools and zoobenthos, for which it is categorized as an opportunistic ichthyophage predator (Moreno-Sánchez et al., 2019; López-Peralta and Arcila, 2002). Fish diet can directly influence its parasitic fauna. Sphyraena ensis is known as an important fish species for human consumption due to the quality of its meat and the low price (Ulloa-Ramírez et al., 2008; Zavala-Leal et al., 2018; Rodríguez-Segovia et al., 2020), in addition to the absence of records of zoonotic parasites. As few studies of this resource have been carried out to date, regulatory measures for its fishing and consumption are lacking (SNP, 2020). This species is listed as of Least Concern by the IUCN Red List (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (Robertson et al., 2010), 010). Despite the importance of this species, knowledge of the parasitic fauna of S. ensis is known for only three species of monogeneans: Paramonaxine yamagutii Bravo-Hollis, 1978 recorded in Baja California, Isla Rasa (Bravo-Hollis, 1978a), Baja California Sur, Cabo San Lucas (Bravo-Hollis, 1978b); Pseudochauhanea elongatus Kritsky, Bilqees and Leiby 1972 recorded in Nayarit, San Blás, México (Lamothe-Argumedo et al., 1997); and Pseudochauhanea mexicana Lamothe-Argumedo, 1966 recorded in Guerrero, Acapulco (Lamothe-Argumedo, 1966), Jalisco, Bahía de Chamela (Pérez-Ponce De León, et al., 1999) and in Nayarit, San Blás (Lamothe-Argumedo et al., 1997). All records are limited to Mexico, and literature referring to the parasitic fauna of S. ensis in other countries of Central America and South America is lacking. In this study we aimed to characterize the community of S. ensis macroparasites from the north coast of Peru and determine the relationship between body size and sex of this host and the macroparasite community. In addition, we present the list of helminths and arthropods recorded in fish of the genus Sphyraena Artedi, 1793 present in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Título Community of macroparasites of the Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes, Sphyraenidae) from the north coast of Peru
Descripción del área de estudio From May to October 2019, 138 specimens of the S. ensis were collected from Caleta de Zorritos, Contralmirante Villar Province, Tumbes, on the north coast of Peru (80º 40' 29” LS; 03º 40' 39'' LO).
Descripción del diseño Prior to necropsy of this marine fish, total body length (TBL) in cm and sex (S) were recorded. The skin, oral cavity, gills, coelomic cavity, stomach, intestine, mesentery, pyloric cecum, gonads, heart, swim bladder, kidneys, liver and spleen of the fish were examined for helminths and parasitic arthropods. All macroparasites collected were preserved in 70 % ethyl alcohol (Eiras et al., 2006). For the morphological study of the macroparasites, helminths were colored in carmine acetic acid and alternatively in gomori trichrome, dehydrated at concentrations of 50%, 70%, 90% and 100% of ethyl alcohol, diaphanized in clove oil and mounted in Canada balsam (Almeida and Almeida, 2014). Parasitic crustaceans were macerated in lactic acid or lactophenol for a 24-48 h exposure time, placed on slides and observed directly under a microscope (Boxshall et al., 2015). Taxonomic classification of the macroparasites was carried out with the help of the general literature of Yamaguti (Yamaguti, 1963a) for monogeneans and Yamaguti (1963b) for copepods. The host and parasite nomenclature were corroborated in the World Register of Marine Species (Worms, 2021). For the analysis of the parasitic population component, the parasitological ecological indices of percentage prevalence (P %), mean abundance (MA) and mean intensity (MI) of infection were calculated following the indications by Bush et al. (1997) and Bautista-Hernández et al. (2015). The type of strategy of each parasitic species was evaluated according to the P %, for which the species were classified as "core or central" species for species with a prevalence greater than 45 %, "secondary" species for those with a prevalence of between 10 % and 45 %, and “satellite” species for those with a prevalence of less than 10 % (Bush and Holmes, 1986). TBL of the fish was classified in ranges using the Sturges rule as the criterion to determine the number of intervals, from which the P%, MA and MI values of the parasites were calculated to evaluate the association between these parameters and the TBL. To determine the degree of association between the P% of the parasites and TBL, the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) was used, previously transforming the P% values to arcsine square root. Pearson´s correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship of the TBL of the fish with the MA and MI of each species of parasite. To calculate the degree of association between the sex of the host and P% of each species of parasite, 2x2 contingency tables were used, using Chi square (X2) and Yates' correction (Y). The Student's t test (t) was used to compare the MA and MI of each parasite and the sex of the host. The populations of the male and female fish were subjected to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with the modification of Lillierfors to corroborate the normality of the data and the homocesticity of variances based on the Levene (F) test (Zar, 2014). The analysis of the parasites in relation to the TBL and the sex of the host was carried out only for the species with a P% greater than 10% (Esch et al., 1990). The alpha diversity of the macroparasite community was determined for the total fish population of males and females of S. ensis using the following indices: total richness, mean richness, Margalef, Simpson (D), Shannon (H), Equitability (J) and Chao-1 (Iannacone and Alvariño, 2013; Minaya et al., 2020a, 2020b). The Student's t test was used to compare mean richness, Shannon and Simpson. The level of significance was evaluated at a level of alpha = 0.05. The descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) technique was used to evaluate the pattern of the structure of the parasite community as a function of the abundance of parasite species, and was represented graphically. The similarity matrix was constructed using the Bray – Curtis index. We analysed the abundance of infection of each species of parasite in each host fish and its relationship with the host's sex using a multivariate analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) test, with 10,000 permutations (Minaya et al., 2020c; Paliy and Shankar, 2016). The parasite specimens collected in this study were deposited in the collection of Helminths Parasites and Related Invertebrates - HPIA, of the zoological collection of the Museum of Natural History of the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal - MUFV, Lima, Peru. The codes are shown in table 1. In addition, a checklist of the parasitic records of Pacific barracuda S. ensis was prepared up to June 2021. For the elaboration of the list, the summaries of scientific meetings and pre-degree theses were not considered. The scientific names of the parasite and host species were reviewed following the classification schemes of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS, 2021).

Personas asociadas al proyecto:

Métodos de muestreo

Prior to necropsy of this marine fish, total body length (TBL) in cm and sex (S) were recorded. The skin, oral cavity, gills, coelomic cavity, stomach, intestine, mesentery, pyloric cecum, gonads, heart, swim bladder, kidneys, liver and spleen of the fish were examined for helminths and parasitic arthropods. All macroparasites collected were preserved in 70 % ethyl alcohol (Eiras et al., 2006). For the morphological study of the macroparasites, helminths were colored in carmine acetic acid and alternatively in gomori trichrome, dehydrated at concentrations of 50%, 70%, 90% and 100% of ethyl alcohol, diaphanized in clove oil and mounted in Canada balsam (Almeida and Almeida, 2014). Parasitic crustaceans were macerated in lactic acid or lactophenol for a 24-48 h exposure time, placed on slides and observed directly under a microscope (Boxshall et al., 2015). Taxonomic classification of the macroparasites was carried out with the help of the general literature of Yamaguti (Yamaguti, 1963a) for monogeneans and Yamaguti (1963b) for copepods. The host and parasite nomenclature were corroborated in the World Register of Marine Species (Worms, 2021).

Área de Estudio Caleta de Zorritos, Contralmirante Villar Province, Tumbes, on the north coast of Peru (80º 40' 29” LS; 03º 40' 39'' LO.
Control de Calidad For the analysis of the parasitic population component, the parasitological ecological indices of percentage prevalence (P %), mean abundance (MA) and mean intensity (MI) of infection were calculated following the indications by Bush et al. (1997) and Bautista-Hernández et al. (2015). The type of strategy of each parasitic species was evaluated according to the P %, for which the species were classified as "core or central" species for species with a prevalence greater than 45 %, "secondary" species for those with a prevalence of between 10 % and 45 %, and “satellite” species for those with a prevalence of less than 10 % (Bush and Holmes, 1986).

Descripción de la metodología paso a paso:

  1. TBL of the fish was classified in ranges using the Sturges rule as the criterion to determine the number of intervals, from which the P%, MA and MI values of the parasites were calculated to evaluate the association between these parameters and the TBL. To determine the degree of association between the P% of the parasites and TBL, the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) was used, previously transforming the P% values to arcsine square root. Pearson´s correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship of the TBL of the fish with the MA and MI of each species of parasite. To calculate the degree of association between the sex of the host and P% of each species of parasite, 2x2 contingency tables were used, using Chi square (X2) and Yates' correction (Y). The Student's t test (t) was used to compare the MA and MI of each parasite and the sex of the host. The populations of the male and female fish were subjected to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with the modification of Lillierfors to corroborate the normality of the data and the homocesticity of variances based on the Levene (F) test (Zar, 2014). The analysis of the parasites in relation to the TBL and the sex of the host was carried out only for the species with a P% greater than 10% (Esch et al., 1990). The alpha diversity of the macroparasite community was determined for the total fish population of males and females of S. ensis using the following indices: total richness, mean richness, Margalef, Simpson (D), Shannon (H), Equitability (J) and Chao-1 (Iannacone and Alvariño, 2013; Minaya et al., 2020a, 2020b). The Student's t test was used to compare mean richness, Shannon and Simpson. The level of significance was evaluated at a level of alpha = 0.05. The descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) technique was used to evaluate the pattern of the structure of the parasite community as a function of the abundance of parasite species, and was represented graphically. The similarity matrix was constructed using the Bray – Curtis index. We analysed the abundance of infection of each species of parasite in each host fish and its relationship with the host's sex using a multivariate analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) test, with 10,000 permutations (Minaya et al., 2020c; Paliy and Shankar, 2016). The parasite specimens collected in this study were deposited in the collection of Helminths Parasites and Related Invertebrates - HPIA, of the zoological collection of the Museum of Natural History of the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal - MUFV, Lima, Peru. The codes are shown in table 1. In addition, a checklist of the parasitic records of Pacific barracuda S. ensis was prepared up to June 2021. For the elaboration of the list, the summaries of scientific meetings and pre-degree theses were not considered. The scientific names of the parasite and host species were reviewed following the classification schemes of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS, 2021).

Referencias bibliográficas

  1. Minaya, D., Ferre, D., García, M., Alvariño, L., Iannacone, J., 2021. Community of macroparasites of the Pacific barracuda Sphyraena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Perciformes, Sphyraenidae) from the north coast of Peru. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 19: 273–287, https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0273 https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0273

Metadatos adicionales

Identificadores alternativos 10.15470/5htffh
f069b871-a725-455b-94b5-e88874de6e0c
https://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=macroparasitos_barracuda_pacifico