A literature-based inventory of ecological interactions in Doñana National Park

Evento de muestreo
Última versión publicado por Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC) el nov. 23, 2023 Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC)

Descargue la última versión de los datos como un Archivo Darwin Core (DwC-A) o los metadatos como EML o RTF:

Datos como un archivo DwC-A descargar 6.124 registros en Inglés (347 KB) - Frecuencia de actualización: irregular
Metadatos como un archivo EML descargar en Inglés (34 KB)
Metadatos como un archivo RTF descargar en Inglés (24 KB)


Our database comprises records of pairwise ecological interactions between species in Doñana National Park from a systematic literature review spanning from 1900 to 2023. This survey includes a diverse range of interaction types, such as predation, competition, pollination, mycorrhizae, among others, and covers taxa from all kingdoms (Plant, Animal, Fungi, Bacteria, Chromista, Archaea, Protozoa, Viruses). Each record represents an encounter between two species at a specific location and time and includes information on the interaction features, biotic partners and environmental context. The database consolidates data from multiple sources, including 'sampling event' and 'occurrence' data, enabling comprehensive coverage of all interaction data extracted from the literature. These data are valuable for scientific research focused on ecological interactions within natural ecosystems, including big-data approaches for generating species distribution models and macro-ecological analyses. The diverse nature of our database allows for an extensive exploration of the complexity and diversity of ecological interactions, with implications for a wide range of ecological studies.


Los datos en este recurso de evento de muestreo han sido publicados como Archivo Darwin Core(DwC-A), el cual es un formato estándar para compartir datos de biodiversidad como un conjunto de una o más tablas de datos. La tabla de datos del core contiene 6.124 registros.

también existen 2 tablas de datos de extensiones. Un registro en una extensión provee información adicional sobre un registro en el core. El número de registros en cada tabla de datos de la extensión se ilustra a continuación.

Event (core)

Este IPT archiva los datos y, por lo tanto, sirve como repositorio de datos. Los datos y los metadatos del recurso están disponibles para su descarga en la sección descargas. La tabla versiones enumera otras versiones del recurso que se han puesto a disposición del público y permite seguir los cambios realizados en el recurso a lo largo del tiempo.


La siguiente tabla muestra sólo las versiones publicadas del recurso que son de acceso público.

¿Cómo referenciar?

Los usuarios deben citar este trabajo de la siguiente manera:

Moracho E, Calvo G, Gómez J M, Homet P, Rodríguez-Sánchez F, Villalva P, Jordano P (2023). A literature-based inventory of ecological interactions in Doñana National Park. Version 1.0. Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC). Samplingevent dataset. https://doi.org/10.15470/jlhz16


Los usuarios deben respetar los siguientes derechos de uso:

El publicador y propietario de los derechos de este trabajo es Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC). Esta obra está bajo una licencia Creative Commons de Atribución/Reconocimiento-NoComercial (CC-BY-NC 4.0).

Registro GBIF

Este recurso ha sido registrado en GBIF con el siguiente UUID: 9b8b3ebb-b4b0-4f47-89ea-4a3fec317c83.  Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC) publica este recurso y está registrado en GBIF como un publicador de datos avalado por GBIF Spain.

Palabras clave

SamplingEvent; Observation; SamplingEvent; Occurrence; protected areas; biodiversity; historical ecology; species interactions; interaction network; ecosystem functioning


Eva Moracho
  • Proveedor De Los Metadatos
  • Originador
  • Punto De Contacto
Postdoctoral researcher
Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC
C/ Américo Vespucio, 26
41092 Sevilla
Gemma Calvo
  • Originador
Estación Biológica de Doñana, EBD-CSIC
Jose María Gómez
  • Originador
Principal investigator
Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas, EEZA-CSIC
Carr. Sacramento, s/n
04120 Almería
Pablo Homet
  • Originador
Estación Biológica de Doñana, EBD-CSIC
Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez
  • Originador
Associated professor
Universidad de Sevilla
C. San Fernando, 4
41004 Sevilla
Pablo Villalva
  • Originador
Research assistant
Estación Biológica de Doñana, EBD-CSIC
Pedro Jordano
  • Proveedor De Los Metadatos
  • Originador
  • Punto De Contacto
Principal investigator
Estación Biológica de Doñana, EBD-CSIC
Pedro Jordano Barbudo

Cobertura geográfica

Our study area primarily encompasses the Doñana National Park, which spans parts of the provinces of Huelva, Sevilla, and Cádiz, as well as extensions of protected natural areas within the Natura 2000 Network in Andalusia.

Coordenadas límite Latitud Mínima Longitud Mínima [3,69, -62,21], Latitud Máxima Longitud Máxima [39,72, 6,5]

Cobertura taxonómica


Reino Bacteria, Animalia
Filo Chordata, Actinobacteriota
Class Aves, Actinomycetia, Mammalia
Orden Mycobacteriales, Carnivora, Accipitriformes
Familia Mycobacteriaceae, Accipitridae, Herpestidae

Cobertura temporal

Fecha Inicial / Fecha Final 1800-01-01 / 2021-05-21

Datos del proyecto

The project SUMHAL aims at implementing a strategy for biodiversity conservation in the western Mediterranean hotspot by setting a technologically efficient and scientifically robust system. The project combines fieldwork and virtual research environments for the recording, storing, analysis, and dissemination of the conservation status and threats of biodiversity in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The main objective of WP5 is to characterize and quantify the interactome of biodiversity in protected areas within the RN2000, by examining the size and diversity of ecological functions integrated within complex networks of ecological interactions among species. The thematic elements of eLabs-BioINTERACT encompasses different forms of ecological interaction: including predator-prey, herbivory, pollination, seed dispersal, parasitism, plant-plant facilitation, mycorrhizae-plants, among others. Current online interaction databases are limited and there are no standards for ecological interaction data, which is crucial for the digitization, sharing and aggregation of interaction data on a large scale. SUMHAL’s WP5 aims to produce useful information for the conservation of biodiversity and biotic interactions by mobilizing information from both field data recording and bibliographic compilation, structured in standardized formats for free access.

Título Sustainability for Mediterranean Hotspots in Andalusia integrating LifeWatch ERIC (SUMHAL). Work package 5 (WP5): eLabs-BioINTERACT: ecological interactions as Biodiversity and ecosystem service components
Identificador LIFEWATCH-2019-09-CSIC-4, POPE 2014-2020
Fuentes de Financiación This study was funded by MICINN through European Regional Development Fund [SUMHAL, LIFEWATCH-2019-09-CSIC-4, POPE 2014-2020].
Descripción del área de estudio The proposed geographical framework for action is Andalusia, with a focus on the Doñana National Park (END), while also including areas within the RN2000. This framework will serve as a foundation for mobilizing information on biotic interactions in broader geographic areas, including Spanish, European, and global levels.
Descripción del diseño The specific aims of the work package are: Task 1. Updating and development of databases on ecological interactions by means of bibliographic compilation and field-based studies. Task 2. Development of a cluster of eLabs platforms to inventory, document and analyze the biodiversity of ecological interactions in protected natural spaces. Task 3. Development of public platforms for database use, integrated with citizen science activities and school training for recording ecological interaction among species.

Métodos de muestreo

We conducted a bibliographic compilation through an exhaustive review of over xxx published and unpublished scientific reports that provide data on interaction diversity across taxa. These reports cover a range of kingdoms, including Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Chromista, Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, and Viruses. We also reviewed non-digital literature from collections at the CSIC archive. To identify relevant scientific peer-reviewed papers on biotic interactions in Doñana Natural Park, we systematically searched for the specific keyword “Doñana” and filtered the results by ecological-related categories. The interaction data extracted from the literature review was collected in a spreadsheet using a controlled vocabulary and an early validation procedure. The database structure includes 80 columns, covering the following information: (1) survey characteristics, (2) time, date and geographic location, (3) taxonomic information, (4) anatomy of the interaction (based on an ad hoc developed ontology of species interactions), and (5) interaction intensity and outcome. We collected two types of interaction data from field studies of natural populations: (i) interaction intensity data based on sampling design studies that provide information on both sampling effort and intensity, and (2) binary interaction data (presence-absence) based on studies that did not involve sampling effort, but instead relied on occurrences of interaction events.

Área de Estudio The data collection period for papers published from Doñana National Park and extensions of protected natural areas within the Natura 2000 Network in Andalusia was extended until May 31st, 2023.
Control de Calidad The fist measure of quality control involves searching for duplicated papers by assigning a unique citation key to each scientific report. We also carefully check thesis chapters that have been published in scientific journals to avoid double recording of information. The second measure of quality control is performed during the recording of interaction data into the spreadsheet. We use controlled vocabularies in many fields and a hierarchical data entry validation for interaction description fields based on previous filtering by kingdom partners. The third measure of quality control is applied during the integration of spreadsheets into a single table in R. We have developed a SUMHAL-WP5 package for R to optimize data integration into the final database, with an adequate validation and data quality check. During this process, we check the data recorded in each column according to controlled vocabularies and predefined value ranges. We also ensure that all indispensable data for each record is filled, and taxonomy classification is accomplished according to the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. All these quality checks are performed automatically using GitHub Actions.

Descripción de la metodología paso a paso:

  1. The bibliographic compilation involved multiple sources of information. First, we searched the ISI Web of Science (WOS) for papers containing data on ecological interactions until May 31st, 2023. The search term "Doñana" was used to retrieve papers, and we restricted the search to the categories of Environmental Sciences-Ecology, Plant Sciences, Zoology, Entomology, Marine and Freshwater Biology, Biodiversity Conservation, Agriculture, and Forestry in WOS ("Theme" as the search field). After removing papers that were clearly out of scope, we retained xx papers from WOS. An additional search on Google Scholar yielded 98 papers using the same search term. We also reviewed the list of theses published by the Doñana Biological Station since 19xx, which comprised a total of 54 works on ecological sciences. To identify duplicates, we created a citation key for each study, and special care was taken when searching for duplicated papers included in thesis works. After removing duplicates from all the sources, we obtained a joint list of xxx papers. We then screened the abstracts or, when necessary, the main text of the articles to select only those papers providing data on ecological interactions. Finally, we read the selected papers and theses in full, resulting in a final set of xx papers and xx theses that provided data for the database on ecological interactions. We also selected a restricted set of national journals that met the following criteria: (1) the surveys were conducted in Doñana National Park or extensions to protected areas in Andalusia, and (2) the aim of the studies or reports focused on biodiversity and species ecology. A total of xxx journals were selected (names), comprising xxx reports/surveys. We carefully read all the texts to extract interaction data. Interaction data extracted from literature was collected in a spreadsheet using a controlled vocabulary and an early validation procedure. The taxonomic classifications of the interacting species were verified at lower taxonomic ranks with the help of the GBIF taxonomy (https://www.gbif.org/es/species/1?root=true). The data from various databases or spreadsheets were integrated continuously using GitHub Actions to create a single CSV file. This integration process utilized the SUMHAL-WP5 package that was specifically developed in R for this purpose. In the event of an error, the corresponding author was notified and a correction was required for the proper integration of the data. Furthermore, during the integration process, the taxonomic classification of the interacting partners was automatically filled using the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy.

Referencias bibliográficas

  1. Thompson, J. N. (2014). Interaction and coevolution. University of Chicago Press. Hobern, D., Baptiste, B., Copas, K., Guralnick, R., Hahn, A., van Huis, E., ... & Wieczorek, J. (2019). Connecting data and expertise: a new alliance for biodiversity knowledge. Biodiversity data journal, 7. Moilanen, A., Wilson, K., & Possingham, H. (2009). Spatial conservation prioritization: quantitative methods and computational tools. Oxford University Press.

Metadatos adicionales

This database defines an ecological interaction as a meeting between two partners at a specific location and time. The core of the database is the interactions that are described by different attributes in the Event file, including the source of the information, the location of the interaction, and the sampling design description, among others. The Occurrences file provides details about the partners involved, including their taxonomy and behavior during the interaction. The MeasurementsOfFacts file includes measurements of the interaction intensity, which quantifies the strength of pairwise interactions. This measure is provided only when the sampling design provides continuous data (e.g., frequency of the encounter); presence-absence data are used otherwise. List of variables and their descriptions: “Events" data: > eventID: A unique identifier for each interaction event in the dataset. It can be created by combining the citation_key and Partners code (e.g., citation_key:Partners:0000001). > bibliographicCitation: A bibliographic reference for the scientific report from which the data was extracted. > eventDate: The date or date range when the interaction occurred. The accuracy of the time can vary from years to a specific day, depending on the data provided by the study. > country: The country where the interaction was observed. > stateProvince: The administrative region where the interaction occurred, represented as a combination of region and province (e.g., Andalucía:Sevilla). > municipality: The municipality where the interaction occurred. > locationRemarks: A descriptive name of the location in the Natura 2000 Network > locality: The name of the specific site (e.g., village or town) where the interaction occurred. > decimalLatitude: The latitude of the site where the interaction occurred, expressed in decimal degrees using the unprojected WGS84 coordinate system and georeferenced in Google Earth. > decimalLongitude: The longitude of the site where the interaction occurred, expressed in decimal degrees using the unprojected WGS84 coordinate system and georeferenced in Google Earth. > minimumElevationInMeters: The altitude of the site in meters. > geodeticDatum: The geodetic datum used to define the geographical coordinates of the site. > samplingEffort: The effort expended for sampling biotic interactions at a locality and time. This information is available only for studies with a sampling design, and it includes the following data: Sampling_space: The area covered by the sampling effort (expressed as the value and its units). Sampling_time: The duration of the sampling effort (expressed as the value and its units). > sampleSizeUnit: The smallest unit of measurement used to quantify the interaction sampling. > sampleSizeValue: The number of sample size units on which the interaction intensity is based. > samplingProtocol: The method used to sample biotic interactions in the study. The terms used are restricted to the following: camera trap, barcoding, direct observation, fecal sample, mist net, stomach content, transect and pellet analysis. > basisOfRecord: The basis of interaction sampling, which indicates how the data were collected. It includes "MaterialSample" for interaction events inferred from physical samples (e.g., a fecal sample, a stomach, etc), "HumanObservation" for interaction data directly observed in the field by people, and "MachineObservation" for data collected automatically by machines. > fieldNotes: Some clarifications that may be necessary for interpreting the data extracted from the study. > dynamicProperties: A list of general descriptors that provide additional information about the study, including: - Study focus: This indicates which taxa the study is focused on and can be categorized as phytocentric, zoocentric, combined, or other; - Data type: This describes the nature of the interaction data provided in the study, which can be either binary or continuous; and Individual ID: This is relevant when the study is performed at the individual level. > institutionCode: The acronym of the institution having custody of the dataset. 2. “Occurrences” data: > eventID: A unique identifier for each interaction event in the dataset. > kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, scientificName, verbatimtaxonRank: The taxonomic classification of the observed taxa, following the GBIF taxonomic backbone. > lifeStage: The age class of each partner involved in the interaction, if known. > sex: The sex of each partner involved in the interaction, if known. > behaviour: The action performed by each partner during the interaction. 3. “MeasurementsOfFacts” data: > measurementType: Only the measurement “interaction intensity” is provided in this file. > measurementUnit: The units of measurement used to quantify the interaction intensity. These are transferred almost literally from the study. > measurementValue: The numeric value of the interaction intensity when the data type is continuous. For binary data, the value is "NA" (not applicable).

Propósito This is a valuable dataset for scientific research aimed at understanding the complex dynamics of natural ecosystems, particularly with respect to the interactions between species. These data offer significant potential for advancing big-data approaches, such as the generation of species distribution models and macro-ecological analyses, which can provide insights into the underlying ecological processes that govern species coexistence and ecosystem functioning.
Identificadores alternativos 10.15470/jlhz16