Mammals in MZNA-VERT: pellet sampling
This collection includes information of small mammals' records obtained from the analysis of barn owl pellets. Most of the material has been collected in the region of Navarra, Spain, although other localities of the Iberian Peninsula are also included. The collection is stored in the holdings of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra (MZNA) and is composed by skulls, mandibles and few skeletons of 36 species of more than 72000 georeferenced specimens. Records date from 1967 to the present covering a period of 50 years. Thus, this collection can be used in studies dealing with distribution patterns of small mammals and their changes over time which can be interesting and useful in conservation planning. The data set is available in GBIF.
MZNA (2016): Mammals in MZNA-VERT: pellet sampling. v2.4. University of Navarra, Museum of Zoology. Dataset/Occurrence. http://www.gbif.es/ipt/resource?r=mzna_vert_mast_mmeg&v=2.4
此資料的發布者及權利單位為 University of Navarra – Department of Environmental Biology。 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
此資源已向GBIF註冊，並指定以下之GBIF UUID: 95ed1fa5-2923-4459-836b-11ad8cc4bf42。 University of Navarra – Department of Environmental Biology 發佈此資源，並經由GBIF Spain同意向GBIF註冊成為資料發佈者。
Occurrence; Specimen; Navarra; Iberian Peninsula; Barn owl pellets; Rodentia; Soricomorpha; MZNA
The collection is primarily formed by specimens from the region of Navarra (75,38%), north of Spain. It also contains specimens from other administrative territories of Spain such as Huesca, Zaragoza and Cáceres.
|界定座標範圍||緯度南界 經度西界 [35.72, -9.56], 緯度北界 經度東界 [43.95, 3.28]|
All specimens were identified to genus or species level (when possible) using skull’s external morphology, teeth features and looking at suitable literature (Gosálbez 1987, Niethammer and Krapp 1978, 1982, 1990). Mandibles found separated from skulls were generally identified to family level and stored as well as the other remains. The collection is composed of 5 orders, 10 families and 36 species. Rodents and soricomorphs almost constitute the entire collection. The most abundant families are Muridae and Soricidae, being 39.66% and 31.67% respectively, followed by Cricetidae with 28.51% of the total records. Information about bats, lagomorphs and carnivores is scarce representing less than 1% of the collection.
|Order||Carnivora, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Soricomorpha|
|Family||Cricetidae, Gliridae, Leporidae, Molossidae, Muridae, Mustelidae, Rhinolophidae, Soricidae, Talpidae, Vespertilionidae|
|Genus||Apodemus, Arvicola, Chionomys, Crocidura, Eliomys, Glis, Lepus, Microtus, Mus, Mustela, Myodes, Myotis, Neomys, Oryctolagus, Pipistrellus, Plecotus, Rattus, Rhinolophus|
|Species||Apodemus sp, Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked field mouse), Apodemus sylvaticus (Long-tailed field mouse), Arvicola sp, Arvicola sapidus (Southwestern water vole), Arvicola terrestris (Eurasian water vole), Chionomys nivalis (European snow vole), Crocidura sp, Crocidura russula (Greater white-toothed shrew), Crocidura suaveolens (Lesser white-toothed shrew), Eliomys quercinus (Garden dormouse), Glis glis (Fat dormouse), Lepus sp, Micromys minutus (Harvest mouse), Microtus sp, Microtus agrestis (Fiedl vole), Microtus arvalis (Common vole), Microtus cabrerae (Cabrera's vole), Microtus duodecimcostatus (Mediterranean pine vole), Microtus gerbei (Pyreneean pine vole), Microtus lusitanicus (Lusitanian pine vole), Mus sp, Mus domesticus (House mouse), Mus spretus (Western meditarrean mouse), Mustela nivalis (Least weasel), Myodes glareolus (Bank vole), Myotis myotis (Greater-mouse-eared bat), Neomys sp, Neomys anomalus (Mediterranean water shrew), Neomys fodiens (Eurasian water shrew), Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Pipistrellus sp, Pipistrellus kuhlii (Kuhl's pipistrelle), Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Common pipistrelle), Plecotus austriacus (Gray long-eared bat), Rattus sp, Rattus norvegicus (Brown rat), Rattus rattus (Roof rat), Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Greater horsehoe bat), Rhinolophus hipposideros (Lesser horsehoe bat), Sorex sp, Sorex araneus (Common shrew), Sorex coronatus (Millet's shrew), Sorex granarius (Iberian shrew), Sorex minutus (Eurasian pygmy shrew), Suncus etruscus (Etruscan shrew), Tadarida sp, Talpa sp, Talpa europaea (European mole), Talpa occidentalis (Spanish mole)|
Most of the specimens come from the main sampling effort made between 1991 and 1993 in order to publish the ‘Atlas de los insectívoros y roedores de Navarra. Análisis biogeográfico’ (Escala et al., 1997) funded by Gobierno de Navarra. Consejero de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Nowadays this collection is growing as a result of the establishment of a monitoring network based on pellet sampling. This network, started in 2015, is constrained mainly to the middle area of Navarra and yearly provides more than 30 new sampling points. Records of this network are periodically incorporated to the dataset. The collection also contains records provided by different sources such as student’s works, PhD researches and occasional pellet sampling.
|計畫名稱||Biogeografical analysis of the small mammal community in Navarra|
|經費來源||Part of the collection was funded by Gobierno de Navarra, Departamento de Educación, Cultura y Deportes.|
|研究區域描述||Navarra is located in the north of Spain between the western end of the Pyrenees and the Ebro’s basin covering an area of 10391 km2. Due to its location and topography, Navarra is characterized with a wide range of climates varying from the oceanic to mediterranean climate (Loidi and Báscones 1995). High diversity of flora and fauna is associated to Navarra owing to its particular location and varied climatic conditions. Specifically Navarra harbours most of the small mammals biodiversity found in Iberian Peninsula.|
|研究設計描述||Navarra was divided in 134 cells of 10x10Km resolution. Each cell were sampled for barn owl pellets. Sampling sites were typically churches where it was easier to find barn owl’s roosts and nests. Pellets were collected mainly in two periods. Northern and southern half of Navarra were sampled in consecutive years between 1991 and 1992. More pellets were incorporated irregularly to the collection during the next years until 2015, when a systematic sampling procedure was put in practice to register temporal changes in small mammals communities.|
There is not a standardized sampling protocol. Pellets were generally collected from barn owl nests and roosts found in churches and barns from villages. Pellets were transported to the laboratory in bags and then frozen to remove bugs. Afterwards, they were dissected separating skulls and mandibles from the remains. Specimens were identified using a stereoscopic microscope and appropriate literature (Gosálbez 1987, Niethammer and Krapp 1978, 1990). Once identified, they were placed in plastic bags with their unique identification number and stored in the MZNA facilities.
|研究範圍||The collection has specimens from 333 localities from Iberian Peninsula but more than three fourths parts of the material come from Navarra and surroundings. Navarra is located in the north of Spain between the western end of the Pyrenees and the Ebro’s basin reaching 10391 km2. Due to its location and topography, Navarra is characterized with a wide range of climates varying from the oceanic to mediterranean climate (Loidi and Báscones 1995). North half of Navarra belongs to Eurosiberian region and the other to Mediterranean which mostly differ s from Eurosiberian by the presence of a drought period in summer (Rivas-Martínez 1987). High diversity of flora and fauna in Navarra derives from this transition from Eurosiberian to Mediterranean bioregion in a relative small distance of 161 km from north to south (Loidi and Báscones 1995).|
|品質控管||All specimens are deposited in the Zoological Museum of the University of Navarra (MZNA, Pamplona, Spain) in ‘Pellet sampling’ collection. Identification of most of specimens was verified in the laboratory by Carmen Escala using suitable literature (Gosálbez 1987, Niethammer and Krapp 1978, 1982, 1990). Scientific names were validated according to Mammal Species of the World (Wilson and Reeder 2005, Palomo et al. 2007). Unique collections’ accession numbers were assigned to each specimen. Coordinates in UTM/MGRS were transformed to geographic system. The consistency of all records was checked by visual inspection overlapping coordinates with a Europe map using GIS (Chapman 2005) and their uncertainty was calculated in metres using the point-radius method.|
- The ‘Pellet sampling’ collection started in the sixties but most of the sampling effort was made between 1968 and 1993 in order to elaborate the ‘Atlas de los insectívoros y roedores de Navarra. Análisis biogeográfico’ (Escala et al., 1997). During all this period there have also been contributions from different sources: research projects, PhD researches, student’s works, donations, volunteers and occasional pellet sampling. The number of specimens has increased all these years reaching more than 73000 records. Material brought to the laboratory was processed, identified and placed in plastic bags. Once identified, data of each specimen was systematically incorporated to MZNA database (Zootron v4.5, Ariño 1991).
|蒐藏名稱||Muestreos de egagrópilas|
|管理單位||計數 73,574 +/- 1 zip plastic bags|
- Ariño AH (1991) Bibliography of Iberian Polychaetes: a data base. Ophelia, suppl. 5: 647–652.
- Chapman, A. D. (2005). Principles and methods of data cleaning (p. 72). Copenhagen. 84-85256-68-9
- Escala, C., Irurzun, J. C., Rueda, A., & Ariño, A. H. (1997). Atlas de los Insectívoros y Roedores de Navarra. Análisis biogeográfico. Serie Zoologica, 25, 1–79.
- Gosálbez, J., 1987. Insectivors i rosegadors de Catalunya. Ketres, Barcelona. 241 pp.
- Loidi, J., & Báscones, J. C. (1995). Memoria del mapa de series de vegetación de Navarra. E 1:200.000 (p. 111). Gobierno de Navarra. Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Ordenacion del Territorio y Vivienda.
- Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed). Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors).Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp
- Niethammer, J., y Krapp, F., 1978. Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, Band 1, Rodentia I. Akademische
- Niethammer, J., y Krapp, F., 1982. Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, Band 2/I: Nagetiere II. Aula – Verlag, Wiesbaden. 649 pp.
- Niethammer, J., y Krapp, F., 1990. Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, Band 3/1, Insectivora- Primates. Aula - Verlag, Wiesbaden. 524 pp.
- Palomo, L. J., Gisbert, J., & Blanco, J. C. (2007). Atlas y libro rojo de los mamíferos terrestres de España (p. 588). Madrid: Dirección General para la Biodiversidad-SECEM-SECEMU.
- Rivas-Martínez, S. (1987). Memoria del mapa de series de vegetación de España (1:400000). Madrid: ICONA.
The Museum of Zoology (MZNA) was founded in 1980 as a repository of zoological materials originating from research and instructional activities of the department of Environmental Biology (proviously known as the department of Zoology and Ecology) of the University of Navarra. Nowadays MZNA store more than two millions specimens in its climate-controlled facilities. The Museum is a Data Provider for the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and is an Affiliate to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). The Museum is also in charge of the curation and management of the Natural History Collections of the School of Science of the University of Navarra (Spain). MZNA attends to reserchers around the world, make loans and accepts deposits.
|目的||The aim of the present data set is to provide all information of the records of small mammals from barn owl pellets stored in MZNA. Due to the different sources of the samples, an effort to standardize those records has been made in order to share them through GBIF.|
|維護說明||As a result of the establishment of a monitoring network based on pellets, we will update new records anually.|