Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

Latest version published by Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) on 17 December 2021 Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC)
Publication date:
17 December 2021
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This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island collected along 64 years (1949 to 2013). The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists ocurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The data were compiled by A.I. Camacho (AIC) and come from own samples, literature and samples donated by several Spanish and foreign researchers which were studied by AIC. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies. Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The data set includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 60 species, 42 of them formally described plus 18 taxa unpublished. This represents everything known for the study area, and nearly a quarter of all known species of Bathynellacea in the world. The main collectors are J. Notenboom & I. Meijers, R. Rouch et coll., A.I. Camacho et coll. (C. Puch, F. Molinero, A.G. Valdecasas, J. Rodriguez, members of G.E. Edelweiss and G. E. Bathynellidae).

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 409 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Camacho AI, Dorda BA, Rey I (2013), Iberian Península and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database, Journal Name, Volume, Issue number (in parentheses)


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 21934821-38c4-496f-a17b-e8dafd29eabf.  Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.


Occurrence; Occurrence; Crustacea; Malacostraca; Syncarida; Bathynellacea; Parabathynellidae; Bathynellidae; Invertebrates collections; groundwater fauna; Iberian Peninsula; Balearic Islands


Ana I. Camacho
  • Metadata Provider
  • Author
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Museo Nacional de ciencias Naturales, CSIC
c/José Gutierrez Abascal nº2
28006 Madrid
Beatriz A. Dorda
  • Author
Museo Nacional de ciencias Naturales, CSIC
c/José Gutierrez Abascal nº2
28006 Madrid
Isabel Rey
  • Author
Museo Nacional de ciencias Naturales, CSIC
c/José Gutierrez Abascal nº2
28006 Madrid

Geographic Coverage

The study area includes 195 sites throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island

Bounding Coordinates South West [-90, -180], North East [90, 180]

Taxonomic Coverage

This is a collection of Bathynellacea, a group of Crustacea Malacostraca. Most of the collection is identified to species level. The samples without identification to species level, due to the lack adult specimens or the absence of males, have been identified to genus or family level. We have found 12 genera belonging to two families, Parabathynellidae and Bathynellidae. In the Parabathynellidae family five genera have been identified: Iberobathynella (22 species plus seven unpublished), Paraiberobathynella (two species), Hexaiberobathynella (two species), Guadalopebathynella (one species) and Hexabathynella (five species plus one unpublished). In the Bathynellidae family seven genera have been identified: Vejdovskybathynella (four species plus three unpublished), Paradoxiclamousella (two species plus one unpublished), Clamousella (three unpublished species), Hispanobathynella (one species), Bathynella (cf) (three species incerta sedis), Probosciclamousella gen. nov. (unpublished) (two unpublished species) and Guarenabathynella gen. nov. (unpublished) (one unpublished species). In summary we have identified 60 species (18 unpublished), all endemic from Portugal and Spain, and 28 of these, have been described as new species. The other 18 species still pending formal description, are also new to science.

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Arthropoda
Class Crustacea
Order Bathynellacea
Family Bathynellidae, Parabathynellidae

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1949-01-01 / 2013-01-01

Project Data

No Description available

Title Database all records the Bathynellacea in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island
Funding Fauna Ibérica I (DGICYT PB87-0397); Fauna Ibérica II (DGICYT PB89-0081); Fauna Iberica III (DGICYT PB92-0089); Inferencia de Patrones Biogeográficos a pequeña escala (DGICYT PB96-0894); Inventario y Catalogación informática de la Biodiversidad acuática subterránea de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Macaronesia (CICYT REN2000-2004 GLO); Protocols for the Assessment and Conservation of aquatic life in the subsurface (PASCALIS), European Union Proposal EVK2-2001-00086 (Contract: EVK2- CT-2001-00121); Biodiversidad Faunística en el sector turístico del Complejo Ojo Guareña: Evaluación de la Influencia de la presión humana en algunas de sus poblaciones de invertebrados (Contract CSIC- Junta de Castilla León, 2002-2004); Sobre el origen y distribución de la fauna acuática subterránea (CICYT CGL2005-02217/BOS); Colonización, Éxito Evolutivo y Biodiversidad Faunística del Complejo Kárstico de Ojo Guareña” En el Monumento Natural de Ojo Guareña (Burgos) (Contract CSIC- Junta de Castilla León, 2006-2009); Estudio piloto para la detección a diferentes escalas geográficas de procesos evolutivos relacionados con el origen de la biodiversidad en grupos de invertebrados singulares (MICINN CGL2010-15786, subprograma BOS).
Study Area Description The study area includes 195 sites throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island, and several sampling dates ranging from 1949 to 2013. The general aim, apart from the specific objectives of each project, was identifying the Bathynellacea crustacean fauna inhabiting subterranean waters of Spain and Portugal (Fauna Ibérica)
Design Description This dataset was developed to determine the current distribution patterns of bathynellids species at the scale of the Iberian Peninsula. It also contributes to the knowledge of groundwater Biodiversity in the Iberian Peninsula and to identify endemic fauna at different geographic scales (country, counties and localities)

The personnel involved in the project:

Ana I. Camacho
  • Author

Sampling Methods

The methods used in collecting this type of samples can be seen in Camacho 1992 and 1994. The samples are fixed in the field in formalin (4%) or ethanol 96% (for DNA studies), or are frozen. Each sample collected is studied under a binocular microscope in order to isolate the bathynellids specimens found. The specimens used for morphological study are stored in alcohol (70%). The specimens used for molecular study were directly frozen at -20ºC, in 400 l of distilled water. A complete dissection of all anatomical parts of specimens of type series is necessary for taxonomic study. The permanent preparations include the dissections together with entire specimens kept in special metal slides, using glycerine gelatine stained with methylene blue as the mounting medium. Anatomical examinations were performed using an oil immersion lens (100X) of an interference microscope. The specific techniques used for molecular analysis for taxonomic application are detailed in Camacho et al., 2002 and Camacho et al., 2011, 2012 and 2013.

Study Extent This collection begins with the sampling campaigns by A.I. Camacho (AIC) in northern Spain for his doctoral thesis in 1983. Most of the data prior to 1983 are bibliographic although some samples studied by AIC were Bathyllenacea obtained between 1976 and 1978 by R. Rouch et coll., in three short sampling trips to different areas of the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, from 1984 to 1986 Jos Notenboom, assisted by Ines Meijers, and later P. van der Hurk & R. Leys (1986), took groundwater samples throughout Spain looking for stygobionts amphipods for the Notenboom doctoral Thesis and all Bathynellacea they found in these samples were also donated to AIC for study. The following years AIC has continued obtaining samples of this fauna throughout Spain in the framework of different research projects. It is worth noting the PASCALIS European project (2002-2004) in which AIC and his team conducted intensive sampling of groundwater fauna in the Cantabrian mountain ranges, increasing substantially the number of Bathynellacea records in Spain. The collection currently consists of over 409 samples with several thousand specimens and more than 2000 scientific preparations among which the typical series of all new species described are included. The specimens are deposited in both the Collection of Crustaceans and the Collection of Tissues and DNA of the MNCN
Quality Control Systematics reliability and consistency is backed by the experience of AIC, who made all identifications, in the field of Bathynellacea taxonomy.

Method step description:

  1. The collection has been computerized with Excel software, compatible with DarwinCorev2 or Darwincore 1.4

Collection Data

Collection Name Col. Camacho and MNCN
Collection Identifier http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/manage/resource.do?r=mncn-aic
Parent Collection Identifier NA
Specimen preservation methods Alcohol

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Braga JM (1949) Un Bathynellidae (Crust. Syncarida) du Portugal (Parabathynella lusitanica sp. n.). Publicaçoes do Instituto de Zoologia "Dr. Augusto Nobre" 40: 1-15.
  2. Braga JM (1960) Sur une Parabathynella (Crust. Syncarida) nouvelle du Portugal. Publicaçoes do Instituto de Zoologia "Dr. Augusto Nobre" 75: 9-22.
  3. Camacho AI (1986) A new species of the genus Hexabathynella (Syncarida, Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae) from Spain. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 56(1): 123-131.
  4. Camacho AI (1987a) A new subterranean Sincarid (Crustacea) fron Spain: Iberobathynella imuniensis n.sp. (Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae). Archiv fur Hidrobiologia 111(1): 137-149.
  5. Camacho AI (1987b) La Familia Parabathynellidae en la Península Ibérica: Taxonomía, Filogenia y Biogeografía. Tesis Doctoral (unpublished), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 890 pp.
  6. Camacho AI (1988a) Comunidades Acuáticas Subterráneas del Norte de la Península Ibérica. Graellsia 44: 1-17.
  7. Camacho AI (1988b) Historia, Clave de Determinación y Distribución del Género Iberobathynella (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) en la Península Ibérica. Actas del III Congreso Ibérico de Entomología: 43-56.
  8. Camacho AI (1989a) A new species of the “mateusi group”: Iberobathynella ortizi sp. n. (Crustacea, Syncarida, Bathynellidae). Zoologica Scripta 18(3): 405-410.
  9. Camacho AI (1989b) Iberobathynella notenboomi spec.nov. from a well in Alicante, South-East Spain. Spixiana 12(2): 105-113.
  10. Camacho AI 1989c. Los Parabatinélidos (Crustacea, Syncarida, Bathynellacea) Recogidos en la Península Ibérica. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 13: 71-90.
  11. Camacho AI (1992) Sampling the subterranean biota. Cave (aquatic environment). In: The Natural History of Biospeleology, AI Camacho (ed.), Monografías del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid 7: 135-168.
  12. Camacho AI (1994) El medio acuático subterráneo y sus poblaciones. Actas del VI Congreso Nacional de Espeleología (La Coruña): 35-52.
  13. Camacho AI (1998) La Vida Animal en el Mundo Subterráneo: Habitantes de las Grandes Cuevas y Simas de España. En: C. Puch, Grandes Cuevas y Simas de España. Exploracions, Monográfico Espeleo Club de Gracia, Barcelona: 19-46.
  14. Camacho AI (2000) La fauna acuática subterránea de Lamasón y Peñamellera Baja (Cantabria): 15 años de investigaciones Bioespeleológicas. Boletín Cántabro de Espeleología 14: 153-164.
  15. Camacho AI (2003a) Historical biogeography of Hexabathynella, a cosmopolitan genus of groundwater Syncarida (Crustacea, Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 457-466.
  16. Camacho AI (2003b) An overview of the distribution of the Parabathynellidae (Crustacea Syncarida Bathynellacea) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Graellsia 59(1): 63-78.
  17. Camacho AI (2003c) Four new species of groundwater crustaceans (Syncarida, Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Natural History 37: 2885-2907.
  18. Camacho AI (2004) An overview of Hexabathynella (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) with the description of a new species. Journal of Natural History 28: 1249-1261.
  19. Camacho AI (2005a) One more piece in the genus puzzle: a new species of Iberobathynella Schminke, 1973 (Syncarida, Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae) from the Iberian Peninsula. Graellsia 61(1): 123-133.
  20. Camacho AI (2005b) Expanding the taxonomic conundrum: three new species of groundwater crustacean (Syncarida, Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Natural History 39(21): 1819-1838.
  21. Camacho AI (2006) An annotated checklist of Syncarida (Crustacea, Malacostraca) in the world. Zootaxa 1374:1–54.
  22. Camacho AI (2007a) The first record of the genus Vejdovskybathynella Serban and Leclerc, 1984 (Syncarida, Bathynellacea, Bathynellidae) in the Iberia Peninsula: three new species. Journal of Natural History 41(45-48): 2817-2841.
  23. Camacho AI (2007b) A new species of Iberobathynella Schminke, 1973 (Syncarida, Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae) in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Graellsia 63(2): 339-347.
  24. Camacho AI & Coineau N (1987) Un nouveau représentant du genre Iberobathynella Schminke en Espagne: I. rouchi n.sp. (Syncarida, Bathynellacea); remarques phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. Stygologia 3(2): 125-137.
  25. Camacho AI & Coineau N (1989) Les Bathynellacea d’Espagne: Répartition et Biogéographie. Mémoires de Biospéléologie 16(43): 111-124.
  26. Camacho AI, Puch C (2008) La Fauna acuática subterránea de Andalucia. En: El Karst de Andalucia: Geoespeleología, Bioespeleología y Presencia Humana. Calaforra JM & Berrocal JA (eds.), 2008. Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucia, Sevilla. Federación Andaluza de Espeleología: 67-73.
  27. Camacho AI, Serban E (1998) Tribu des Iberobathynellini nov., diagnoses des taxa nouveaux (Parabathynellidae, Bathynellacea, Podophallocarida). Travaux de l’Institut de Spéologie “Émile Racovitza” 34: 15-75.
  28. Camacho AI, Serban E (2000) Revisión del grupo Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella) Camacho & Serban, 1998 (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) endémico de la Península Ibérica. Graellsia 56: 35-48.
  29. Camacho AI, Valdecasas AG (1992b) The subterranean environment. Limnetica 8: 167-174
  30. Camacho AI, Valdecasas AG (2003) Evaluating extinction in rare habitats: an essay. Graellsia, 59(2-3): 409-414.
  31. Camacho AI, Bello E, Estabrook GF (1997) A statistical approach to the evaluation of characters to estimate evolutionary relationships among the species of the aquatic subterranean genus Iberobathynella (Crustacea, Syncarida). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 60: 221-241.
  32. Camacho AI, Serban E, Guil N (2000) Phylogenetical review and biogeographic remarks on the interstitial and subterranean freshwater iberobathynells (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae). Journal of Natural History 34: 563-585.
  33. Camacho AI, Rey I, Dorda BA, Machordom A, Valdecasas AG (2002) A note on the systematic position of the Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) using molecular evidence. Contribution to Zoology 71(4): 123-129.
  34. Camacho AI, Torres T, Ortiz E, Puch C, Valdecasas AG (2006) Small-scale biogeographical pattern in groundwater Crustacea (Syncarida, Parabathynellidae). Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 3527-3541.
  35. Camacho AI, Dorda BA, Rey I (2011) Identifying cryptic speciation accross groundwater populations: first COI sequences of Bathynellidae family (Crustacea, Syncarida, Bathynellacea). Graellsia 67(1): 7-12.
  36. Camacho AI, Dorda BA, Rey I (2012). Undisclosed taxonomic Diversity of Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Syncarida) in the Iberian Peninsula revealed by molecular data. Journal of Crustacean Biology 32(5): 816-826.
  37. Camacho AI, Dorda BA, Rey I (2013). Old a new taxonomic tools: a new genus and two new species of bathynellids (Crustacea: Syncarida: Bathynellidae) from Spain described with morphological and molecular data. Journal Natural History. 47 (21-22): 1393-1420.
  38. Deharveng L, Stoch F, Gibert J, Bedos A, Galassi D, Zagmajster M, Brancelj A, Camacho AI, Fiers F, Martin P, Giani N, Magniez G, Marmonier P (2009). Groundwater biodiversity in Europe. Freshwater Biology 54(4): 709-726.
  39. Delamare Deboutteville C, Angelier, E. (1950) Sur un type de Crustacé phréaticole nouveau: Parabathynella fagei n.sp. Comptes Rendu Hebdomadaires de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris 231: 175-176.
  40. Delamare Deboutteville C, Chappuis PA (1954) Les Bathynelles de France et d’Espagne avec diagnoses d’espèces et de formes nouvelles. Vie et Milieu 4(1)(1953): 114-115.
  41. Delamare Deboutteville C, Chappuis PA (1954) Les Bathynelles de France et d’Espagne. Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale 91(1): 51- 73.
  42. Galhano MH (1967) Sur une nouvelles Parabathynella psammique du Portugal. Publicaçoes do Instituto de Zoologia "Dr. Augusto Nobre" 98: 9-18.
  43. Galhano MH (1970) Contribuçao para o conhecimiento de fauna intersticial em Portugal. Parabathynella lusitanica valbonensis ssp. n. Publicaçoes do Instituto de Zoologia "Dr. Augusto Nobre" 110: 77-82.
  44. van den Hurk P, Leys R (1986) Description of the localities visited during a stygofauna collecting trip to southern Spain (Andalusia), june-july 1985. Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie-Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam, Nederland (unpublished).
  45. Malard F, Boutin C, Camacho AI, Ferreira D, Michel G, Sket B, Stoch F (2009) Diversity patterns of stygobitic crustaceans across multiple spatial scales in Europe. Freshwater Biology 54(4): 756-776.
  46. Margalef R (1951) Un sincárido del género Parabathynella en las Baleares. Publicaciones del Instituto de Biología Aplicada de Barcelona, 8, 151-153.
  47. Noodt W, Galhano MH (1969) Studien an Crustacea Subterranea (Isopoda, Syncarida, Copepoda) aus dem Norden Portugals. Publicaçoes do Instituto de Zoología “Dr. Augusto Nobre” 107: 9-75.
  48. Notenboom, J, Meijers I (1984) Research on the groundwater fauna of Spain: list of stations and first results. Verslagen en Technische Gegevens, Nº. 42, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie-Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam, Nederland, pp 94.
  49. Serban E, Comas J (1978) Contribution à la connaissance du genre Iberobathynella Schminke: I. asturiensis n. sp. et I. espaniensis n. sp., nouvelles espèces d’Espagne (Bathynellacea, Parabathynellidae). Travaux de l’Institut de Spéologie “Émile Racovitza” 17: 13-37.

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers 21934821-38c4-496f-a17b-e8dafd29eabf