The present study contribute to update the know checklist of the Lanternfishes species of the genus Diaphus occurring in the tropical southwestern Pacific, based on material collected from six recent oceanographic cruises of R. V. Alis in the Coral Sea, the Fiji Basin and the Wallis-and-Futuna EEZ. Diaphus spp. samples were obtained using pelagic trawlnets. Twenty different species from the Diaphus were identified. Specimens morphologically closest to D. termophilus and belonging to a possibly undescribed species were also sampled from the Wallis-and-Futuna waters, highlighting persisting gaps in our knowledge of this ecologically important group of fishes. Our collection of specimens, all preserved for DNA extraction, will be useful to complementing the current Diaphus barcode database for the tropical southwestern Pacific.
Registros de Dados
Os dados deste recurso de ocorrência foram publicados como um Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), que é o formato padronizado para compartilhamento de dados de biodiversidade como um conjunto de uma ou mais tabelas de dados. A tabela de dados do núcleo contém 135 registros.
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Pesquisadores deveriam citar esta obra da seguinte maneira:
Borsa, P., Millet, L., Vourey, É., 2022. Lanternfishes of the genus Diaphus collected during cruises ESSCHA, NECTAlis 3–5, PUFFAlis and WALLAlis of RV Alis in the tropical southwestern Pacific. Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. Dataset/Occurrence: https://doi.org/10.15470/ek0u3y
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O editor e o detentor dos direitos deste trabalho é Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.
Este recurso foi registrado no GBIF e atribuído ao seguinte GBIF UUID: f87a91c0-b6dd-4a4f-a837-f0f90fe8f9c0. Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona publica este recurso, e está registrado no GBIF como um publicador de dados aprovado por GBIF Spain.
Occurrence; Checklist; Mesopelagic fishes; New Caledonia; Wallis and Futuna; Morphology; New records; Occurrence
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Six oceanographic cruises of RV Alis in the tropical southwestern Pacific between 2014 and 2018; namely, cruises ESSCHA, NECTAlis 3, NECTAlis 4, NECTAlis 5 and PUFFAlis in the New Caledonian exclusive economic zone (EEZ), spanning the eastern Coral Sea and the western South Fiji Basin; and cruise WALLAlis in the Wallis and Futuna EEZ.
|Coordenadas delimitadoras||Sul Oeste [-26, 160], Norte Leste [-13, 180]|
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|Espécie||Diaphus anderseni Tåning, 1932, Diaphus brachycephalus Tåning, 1928, Diaphus diademophilus Nafpaktitis, 1978, Diaphus effulgens (Goode and Bean, 1896), Diaphus fragilis Tåning, 1928, Diaphus garmani Gilbert, 1906, Diaphus jenseni Tåning, 1932, Diaphus lucidus (Goode and Bean, 1896), Diaphus luetkeni (Brauer, 1904), Diaphus malayanus Weber, 1913, Diaphus mollis Tåning, 1928, Diaphus parri Tåning, 1932, Diaphus perspicillatus (Ogilby, 1898), Diaphus phillipsi Fowler, 1934, Diaphus regani Tåning, 1932, Diaphus signatus Gilbert, 1908, Diaphus splendidus (Brauer, 1904), Diaphus suborbitalis Weber, 1913, Diaphus termophilus Tåning, 1928, Diaphus cf. termophilus, Diaphus thiollierei Fowler, 1934|
|Data Inicial / Data final||2014-11-23 / 2018-07-14|
Dados Sobre o Projeto
Mesopelagic micronekton fauna includes ubiquitous small planktivorous fishes, which may represent a total biomass of several billion tons (Irigoien et al., 2014). Together with bristle–mouths (family Gonostomatidae), the family Myctophidae (lanternfishes) dominates the small–fish communities of the mesopelagic ecosystems in abundance. With over 250 species, it is one of the most species–rich families of marine fishes (Catul et al., 2011). Lanternfish occupies an important trophic position, intermediate between primary consumers, predominantly zooplankton, and higher–level predators including large fish, squid, marine mammals, and seabirds (Phillips et al., 2001; Cherel and Duhamel, 2003; Connan et al., 2007; Hammill, 2018; Saunders et al., 2019). Despite their importance in oceanic trophic networks, myctophid fishes remain understudied (Irigoien et al., 2014; Caiger et al., 2021). An accurate taxonomic assessment of the mesopelagic communities is a prerequisite to improving our understanding of mesopelagic trophic networks. Diaphus is the most speciose myctophid genus, with 79 species (WoRMS Editorial Board, 2022), less than 12 % of which were described before the twentieth century. Here we focus on the Diaphus spp. community present in the tropical southwestern Pacific region, one of the 62 marine provinces recognized by Spalding et al. (2007) based on bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophic relationships, which we consider a robust framework to define the biogeographic setting of the present study. An alternative classification worth considering is the partition of the mesopelagic habitat of the world’s ocean into 33 mesopelagic ecoregions, based on oceanography, geospatial mapping, and expert knowledge of ecological drivers of mesopelagic community structure (Sutton et al., 2017). The present study aimed to update our knowledge of the Diaphus spp. species occurring in the tropical southwestern Pacific based on a review of the literature and material collected from six recent oceanographic cruises in the central and eastern Coral Sea, the Fiji Basin and the Wallis and Futuna region.
|Título||Lanternfishes of the genus Diaphus collected during cruises ESSCHA, NECTAlis 3–5, PUFFAlis and WALLAlis of RV Alis in the tropical southwestern Pacific.|
|Descrição da Área de Estudo||Lanternfish specimens were collected during six oceanographic cruises of RV Alis in the tropical southwestern Pacific between 2014 and 2018; namely, cruises ESSCHA, NECTAlis 3, NECTAlis 4, NECTAlis 5 and PUFFAlis in the New Caledonian exclusive economic zone (EEZ), spanning the eastern Coral Sea and the western South Fiji Basin; and cruise WALLAlis in the Wallis and Futuna EEZ.|
|Descrição do Design||Lanternfishes were captured in midwater micronekton trawls with vertical and horizontal openings, both 10 meters wide, and a codend of 10–mm mesh. The trawl was towed horizontally for 30 min at 3–4 knots to target micronekton aggregations detected using an EK60V echosounder (Simrad Kongsberg Maritime AS, Horten). During each towing operation, the opening of the trawl was monitored using attached sensors (Scanmar, Åsgårdstrand) and the vessel speed was adjusted accordingly. The lanternfish samples were sorted on board into family and, tentatively, into genus. Specimens were group–photographed and rapidly frozen at –18 ºC. At the end of a cruise, specimens were defrosted by soaking in 96 % ethanol at laboratory temperature, photographed, and transferred to individual vials. Specimens not damaged by trawling and handling were identified to genus and eventually to species level based on morphology and meristics (see next section). Diaphus spp. specimens were collected from 21 stations in the Coral Sea west and south of New Caledonia, 11 stations in the Fiji Basin, and eight stations in the Wallis and Futuna EEZ.|
O pessoal envolvido no projeto:
Métodos de Amostragem
We performed a preliminary bibliographic search on Diaphus spp. occurrence in the tropical southwestern Pacific in the Web of ScienceTM (WoS) (www.webofscience.com/wos/; Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia) using the WoS's 'All Databases' library and the following combination of 'Topic'–category keywords and Boolean operators: 'Diaphus' and ['Coral Sea' or 'Fiji' or ('Vanuatu' or 'New Hebrides') or 'Tonga' or 'Wallis' or ('southwest*' and 'Pacific')] returned eight references, five of which were geographically irrelevant. The three relevant references (Suthers, 1996; Rissik and Suthers, 2000; Flynn and Paxton, 2012) exclusively concerned the Coral Sea and contributed to building table 1. Additional references were gathered from searches on the Google Scholar web search engine (https://scholar.google.com/) using the keyword combination ('checklist', 'Diaphus') with 'Coral Sea', 'New Caledonia', 'Tonga', or 'Wallis'. Table 1 shows the final Diaphus spp. checklist in the tropical southwestern Pacific, thus obtained from the literature (as of 31 May 2022. In addition, the Global biodiversity information facility database (GBIF, 2022) was searched for Diaphus spp. occurrences using the 'preserved specimen' filter. The searched geographic area was the quadrilateral delimited by latitudes 10 ºS–30 ºS and longitudes 150 ºE–185 ºE, corresponding roughly to the tropical southwestern Pacific as defined by Spalding et al. (2007) and including all three regions sampled for the present survey (see next sub–section). The distribution range of a species was deduced from the corresponding point map in the GBIF database (GBIF, 2022).
|Área de Estudo||Lanternfish specimens were collected during six oceanographic cruises of RV Alis in the tropical southwestern Pacific between 2014 and 2018; namely, cruises ESSCHA, NECTAlis 3, NECTAlis 4, NECTAlis 5 and PUFFAlis in the New Caledonian exclusive economic zone (EEZ), spanning the eastern Coral Sea and the western South Fiji Basin; and cruise WALLAlis in the Wallis and Futuna EEZ.|
|Controle de Qualidade||Methods for meristic count and morphological measurement, photophore and orbital luminous tissue definitions and nomenclature followed Nafpaktitis (1968). Lanternfish specimens that were assigned to the genus Diaphus had the following characteristics (Hulley, 1984; Paxton and Hulley, 1999): secondary photophores absent; no photophore far above lateral line near dorsal profile; dorsal (Dn) and ventral (Vn) nasal luminous organs present; pectoral organ no. 4 (PO4) elevated; ventral luminous organs (VO2–3) elevated; four precaudal luminous organs (Prc); no supra– or infra–caudal luminous organ present. Species in the genus Diaphus can be assigned to one of two distinct groups, the Diaphus fulgens and Diaphus theta species complexes, based on, respectively, the presence or absence of a suborbital luminous organ (So) and an inner series of broad–based, forward–hooked teeth on the posterior part of the premaxillary eminence (Nafpaktitis et al., 1995). For further identification to species level, we used the identification keys of Wisner (1974), Kawaguchi and Shimizu (1978), Nafpaktitis (1978) and Paxton and Hulley (1999).|
Descrição dos passos do método:
- Lanternfishes were captured in midwater micronekton trawls with vertical and horizontal openings, both 10 meters wide, and a codend of 10–mm mesh. The trawl was towed horizontally for 30 min at 3–4 knots to target micronekton aggregations detected using an EK60V echosounder (Simrad Kongsberg Maritime AS, Horten). During each towing operation, the opening of the trawl was monitored using attached sensors (Scanmar, Åsgårdstrand) and the vessel speed was adjusted accordingly.
- Borsa, P., Millet, L., Vourey, É., 2022. Lanternfishes of the genus Diaphus collected during cruises ESSCHA, NECTAlis 3–5, PUFFAlis and WALLAlis of RV Alis in the tropical southwestern Pacific. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 20: 83–101, Doi: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2022.20.0083 https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2022.20.0083