Occurrence

Status and distribution of diurnal raptors in Central North Algeria, the case of Great Kabylia

Latest version published by Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona on 11 January 2022 Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
In 2018 and 2019 thirteen species of raptors, with 407 individuals, were found nesting in Great Kabylia in Algeria. During this period, 196 raptor nest sites were located. (Falco tinnunculus is not included as it thrives in many biotopes and tolerates anthropization).We noted a decrease in specific richness and abundance of raptors in the region compared to data for 1992. Some raptors were not seen during our study: Gypaetus barbatus, Pandion haliaetus, Falco biarmicus, Circaetus aeruginosus, and Falco eleonorae. We classified nesting diurnal raptors into 3 classes according to their relative abundance: 1. widespread species (10-26%): F. tinnunculus, Hieraaetus pennatus, and Buteo rufinus cirtensis; 2. common species (5-10%): Elanus caeruleus, Falco peregrinus, Circaetus gallicus, Falco n... More

Description

In 2018 and 2019 thirteen species of raptors, with 407 individuals, were found nesting in Great Kabylia in Algeria. During this period, 196 raptor nest sites were located. (Falco tinnunculus is not included as it thrives in many biotopes and tolerates anthropization).We noted a decrease in specific richness and abundance of raptors in the region compared to data for 1992. Some raptors were not seen during our study: Gypaetus barbatus, Pandion haliaetus, Falco biarmicus, Circaetus aeruginosus, and Falco eleonorae. We classified nesting diurnal raptors into 3 classes according to their relative abundance: 1. widespread species (10-26%): F. tinnunculus, Hieraaetus pennatus, and Buteo rufinus cirtensis; 2. common species (5-10%): Elanus caeruleus, Falco peregrinus, Circaetus gallicus, Falco naumanni, Gyps fulvus, and Milvus migrans; 3. uncommon species (1-5%): Neophron percnopterus, Accipiter nisus, Aquila fasciata, and Aquila chrysaetos. With the exception of N. percnopterus, which is classified as an endangered species, the raptors of Great Kabylia are mainly classified in the category of species of least concern (IUCN, 2020).

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 180 records.

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How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Hachour K, Talmat-Chaouchi N, Moulaï R (2022): Status and distribution of diurnal raptors in Central North Algeria, the case of Great Kabylia. v1.2. Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. Dataset/Occurrence. https://doi.org/10.15470/wt5dgi

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The publisher and rights holder of this work is Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 71ceedac-4422-44ca-9aae-3162d8f88df0.  Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.

Keywords

Raptors; Nest sites; Great Kabylia; Algeria; Occurrence

Contacts

Who created the resource:

K. Hachour
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ
N. Talmat-Chaouchi
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ
R. Moulaï
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ

Who can answer questions about the resource:

K. Hachour
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ
N. Talmat-Chaouchi
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ
R. Moulaï
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ

Who filled in the metadata:

K. Hachour
Université de Bejaia
Bejaia
DZ

Who else was associated with the resource:

Metadata Provider
Montse Ferrer
Managing Editor
Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
Ps Picasso s/n
08003 Barcelona
Barcelona
ES

Geographic Coverage

The study was conducted in Great Kabylia. The observations were mainly made in the departments of Tizi-Ouzou and Boumerdes, and in part of the north of the department of Bouira. The study region has a Mediterranean climate. It is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the east by the department of Béjaïa, to the west by the capital Algiers and the Blida department, and to the south by the M’sila department. Three main ecological zones characterize the study region; the mountain, the valley, and the coast

Bounding Coordinates South West [36.2, 3.2], North East [36.9, 4.5]

Taxonomic Coverage

No Description available

Class  Aves
Family  Accipitridae,  Falconidae

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2018-10-03 / 2019-10-07

Project Data

Diurnal raptors often attract much attention from ornithologists due to their size, fierce behavior, rarity, the symbolism often associated with them, and the identification problems they sometimes pose (Dubois and Duquet, 2009). Raptors play an important role in maintaining the balance of rodents, grain-eating birds, and insects harmful to crops. When they hunt diseased prey, it limits the spread of animal epidemics. Some raptors are nature's garbage collectors because they feed on the corpses of wild and domestic animals (Franchimont, 2001). Studies performed on diurnal raptors in Algeria to date have mainly focused on the trophic ecology of a few species, such as Falco tinnunculus (Baziz et al., 2001; Souttou et al., 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2018), Elanus caeruleus (Manaa et al., 2013), Falco eleonorae (Bakour and Moulaï, 2019), Buteo rufinus cirtensis and Falco biarmicus (Djilali, 2019). Among the research of note on the distribution of diurnal raptors carried out in Algeria it is worth mentioning that of Heim de Balsac and Mayaud (1962), Kerautret (1967), Ledant et al. (1981), Moali (1999), Moali and Gaci (1992) in Great Kabylia; Moulaï and Mostefai (2015) in Béjaïa; Benmammar-Hasnaoui and Bounaceur (2019) in the extreme northwest of the country; Messabhia (2019) in the region of Oum El Bouaghi; Djilali (2019) in Ghardaïa and Béchar; and Elafri et al. (2020) in northeastern Algeria. The most recent update of nesting diurnal raptors in Great Kabylia in northern Algeria was the work of Moali and Gaci in 1992. The aim of the present study was to update the status and distribution of the diurnal raptors of Great Kabylia, 30 years later.

Title Status and distribution of diurnal raptors in Central North Algeria, the case of Great Kabylia
Study Area Description The study was conducted in Great Kabylia. The observations were mainly made in the departments of Tizi-Ouzou and Boumerdes, and in part of the north of the department of Bouira. The study region has a Mediterranean climate. It is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the east by the department of Béjaïa, to the west by the capital Algiers and the Blida department, and to the south by the M’sila department. Three main ecological zones characterize the study region; the mountain, the valley, and the coast (fig. 1). The mountain range of Djurdjura mainly represents the mountainous relief. It is characterized by a cedar forest with an area of 2,940 ha, in which there are two types of stands: cedar stands (Cedrus atlantica) occupying 80 % of the total area, with a few scattered plants of Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), maple (Acer obtusatum and Acer monspessulanum), aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), zean oak (Quercus canariensis) and yew (Taxus baccata). The remaining 20 % of the area is populated by mixed cedar (cedar and holm oak) (Moussouni, Boubaker, 2015). The shrub layer comprises Quercus rotundifolia, Berberis hispanica, Crataegus laciniata, Rosa sicula, Rosa canina, Lonicera kabylica, Daphne laureola subsp. latifolia, Ruscus aculeatus (Meddour, 2010). The rocky mountain cliffs with cavities and caves favor the settlement of raptors. The scree below forms their hunting grounds. In the middle of the mountain range is the Djurdjura National Park, between the departments of Tizi-Ouzou and that of Bouira, covering an area of 18,550 ha. The valley makes up a larger area than the mountain and coast areas. It is characterized by the presence of a set of human agglomerations (towns and villages), and agricultural land, and on the neighboring hills we find mixed forests of holm oak and cork oak. The coastal strip has a humid climate and is characterized by cork oak forests, areas with shrubland, dune ridges, ponds, and sea cliffs.
Design Description The census of diurnal raptor nesting pairs and the geolocation of raptor nest sites were carried out for two consecutive years; 2018 and 2019. Counts were carried out during the breeding season from March to July. The total area surveyed on the ground was 552,400 ha. The method adopted for the census of breeding pairs was the systematic search for raptor nest sites in favorable habitats, namely, rocky mountain cliffs (mainly in the Djurdjura national park), seaside cliffs, tall trees, and rocky peaks in the valley. The investigation was sometimes carried out by car (road transect method) at valley level, or on foot (hiking) in places inaccessible to vehicles, especially in the mountains and seaside cliffs. The observations were carried out on a total of 46 roads and routes. The conservation status of the species was assessed with reference to the IUCN Red List (2020). We calculated the total number of the breeding raptor pairs detected in all surveys. Moreover, the species’ totals and the relative abundance (%) (n/N × 100) were also counted: where (n) is the count of pairs of a particular bird species and (N) is the total number of the pairs counted for all species during each count session. For frequency occurrence (%) (Ni/Nt × 100), where (Ni): number of roads and routes where breeding pairs of one species have been observed, (Nt): total number of roads and routes visited. On the maps, in addition to the number of the breeding pairs observed we added the number of juveniles of colonial species to gather more data concerning the size of the colonies. The colonies mentioned in the maps are those of Falco naumanni and Gyps fulvus. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to show the correlation between diurnal raptor species and the main habitats of Great Kabylia. The distribution of the raptor species according to the three habitat types on the graphic allowed us to separate the raptor species into groups.

The personnel involved in the project:

Author
K. Hachour

Sampling Methods

The census of diurnal raptor nesting pairs and the geolocation of raptor nest sites were carried out for two consecutive years; 2018 and 2019. Counts were carried out during the breeding season from March to July. The total area surveyed on the ground was 552,400 ha. The method adopted for the census of breeding pairs was the systematic search for raptor nest sites in favorable habitats, namely, rocky mountain cliffs (mainly in the Djurdjura national park), seaside cliffs, tall trees, and rocky peaks in the valley. The investigation was sometimes carried out by car (road transect method) at valley level, or on foot (hiking) in places inaccessible to vehicles, especially in the mountains and seaside cliffs. The observations were carried out on a total of 46 roads and routes.

Study Extent The study was conducted in Great Kabylia. The observations were mainly made in the departments of Tizi-Ouzou and Boumerdes, and in part of the north of the department of Bouira. The study region has a Mediterranean climate. It is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the east by the department of Béjaïa, to the west by the capital Algiers and the Blida department, and to the south by the M’sila department. Three main ecological zones characterize the study region; the mountain, the valley, and the coast (fig. 1). The mountain range of Djurdjura mainly represents the mountainous relief. It is characterized by a cedar forest with an area of 2,940 ha, in which there are two types of stands: cedar stands (Cedrus atlantica) occupying 80 % of the total area, with a few scattered plants of Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), maple (Acer obtusatum and Acer monspessulanum), aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), zean oak (Quercus canariensis) and yew (Taxus baccata). The remaining 20 % of the area is populated by mixed cedar (cedar and holm oak) (Moussouni, Boubaker, 2015). The shrub layer comprises Quercus rotundifolia, Berberis hispanica, Crataegus laciniata, Rosa sicula, Rosa canina, Lonicera kabylica, Daphne laureola subsp. latifolia, Ruscus aculeatus (Meddour, 2010). The rocky mountain cliffs with cavities and caves favor the settlement of raptors. The scree below forms their hunting grounds. In the middle of the mountain range is the Djurdjura National Park, between the departments of Tizi-Ouzou and that of Bouira, covering an area of 18,550 ha. The valley makes up a larger area than the mountain and coast areas. It is characterized by the presence of a set of human agglomerations (towns and villages), and agricultural land, and on the neighboring hills we find mixed forests of holm oak and cork oak. The coastal strip has a humid climate and is characterized by cork oak forests, areas with shrubland, dune ridges, ponds, and sea cliffs.
Quality Control The conservation status of the species was assessed with reference to the IUCN Red List (2020).

Method step description:

  1. We calculated the total number of the breeding raptor pairs detected in all surveys. Moreover, the species’ totals and the relative abundance (%) (n/N × 100) were also counted: where (n) is the count of pairs of a particular bird species and (N) is the total number of the pairs counted for all species during each count session. For frequency occurrence (%) (Ni/Nt × 100), where (Ni): number of roads and routes where breeding pairs of one species have been observed, (Nt): total number of roads and routes visited. On the maps, in addition to the number of the breeding pairs observed we added the number of juveniles of colonial species to gather more data concerning the size of the colonies. The colonies mentioned in the maps are those of Falco naumanni and Gyps fulvus. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to show the correlation between diurnal raptor species and the main habitats of Great Kabylia. The distribution of the raptor species according to the three habitat types on the graphic allowed us to separate the raptor species into groups.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Hachour, K., Talmat–Chaouchi, N., Moulaï, R., 2021. Status and distribution of diurnal raptors in Central North Algeria, the case of Great Kabylia. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 19: 261–272, https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0261 https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0261

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers 10.15470/wt5dgi
71ceedac-4422-44ca-9aae-3162d8f88df0
https://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=diurnal_raptors_algeria