Dataset of butterfly monitoring in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

Latest version published by Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia on Jun 2, 2021 Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia

This data set comprises information collected in field about the monitoring of the butterfly communities of Sierra Nevada since 2008. The data set has been compiled in up to 20 different locations, where butterfly communities estimations have been carried out following the internationally standardised line transect method. The data have been collected from the months of March to October with a variable periodicity between sites and between years. Usually, the periodicity has approached a sampling every two weeks. The data collection has always been carried out in suitable climatic conditions. The community of butterflies of Sierra Nevada is of high interest at European level given the values of diversity detected. In total, 101,424 individuals belonging to 102 species and 1 subspecies have been detected, distributed among 64 genera and 5 different families. The sampled habitats include aquatic systems, autochthonous scot pine forests, high mountain grasslands, high mountain meadows, high mountain scrubland, holm oak forests, lowland crops, lowland scrublands, mid mountain grasslands, mid mountain scrubland, mountain crops, pine plantations and pyrenean oak forests.

Data Records

The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 10,369 records. 2 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Event (core)
    10369
  • Occurrence 
    34137
  • MeasurementOrFact 
    4852

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 10,369 records in English (8 MB) - Update frequency: annually
Metadata as an EML file download in English (22 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (21 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Barea-Azcón J M (2021): Dataset of butterfly monitoring in Sierra Nevada (Spain). v1.1. Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia. Dataset/Samplingevent. https://doi.org/10.15470/tc3gdq

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: d7a3df60-e856-438b-851d-74653ef6c0d2.  Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory. Andalusian Environmental Center, University of Granada, Regional Government of Andalusia publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Spain.

Keywords

Butterflies; high Mediterranean mountain; Protected Areas; Sierra Nevada; global change.; Samplingevent

Contacts

Who created the resource:

José Miguel Barea-Azcón
Technician
Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua. Department of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Sustainable Development. Regional Government of Andalusia C/ Minerva 7. Edificio Zeus III, local 18014 Granada Granada ES
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Barea_Azcon

Who can answer questions about the resource:

José Miguel Barea-Azcón
Technician
Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua. Department of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Sustainable Development. Regional Government of Andalusia C/ Minerva 7. Edificio Zeus III, local 18014 Granada Granada ES
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Barea_Azcon
Andrea Ros Candeira
Research Assistant
Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación del Sistema Tierra en Andalucía (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n 18006 Granada Granada ES +34 958 249748

Who filled in the metadata:

José Miguel Barea-Azcón
Technician
Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua. Department of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Sustainable Development. Regional Government of Andalusia C/ Minerva 7. Edificio Zeus III, local 18014 Granada Granada ES
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Barea_Azcon

Geographic Coverage

Sierra Nevada (SE Spain) is one of the southernmost highest mountain ranges of Europe. It comprises an elevation range from 270 to 3,492 m a.s.l. and it extends along 100 km from west to east in parallel to the Mediterranean coast line, with a notable increase of aridity towards the eastern sector. Sierra Nevada presents a notable environmental heterogeneity, not only in its elevational gradient, but also in its different orientations and in the west-east gradient. The five Mediterranean bioclimatic belts are represented here: thermo, meso, supra, oro and crioro-Mediterranean. A forest belt occupies good part at the middle and lower elevations and presents an uneven state of transformation, while certain extensions of holm oaks still persist (on siliceous environments and also on carbonate soils), relictic Pyrenean oak forests and some native pine forests of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinaster, the presence of more than 30,000 ha of reforestation pine forests is also noteworthy. Above the tree line there are 30,000 ha of typical mediterranean mountain scrubland mainly compounded by species of the genus Genista, Juniperus, Berberis and Hormatophila among others. On the upper belts, rocky landscapes defined by recent glacial events alternates with high mountain grasslands and 74 glacial lakes distributed in an elevation range situated between 2,600 and 3,100 m a.s.l. The high mountain area comprises more than 30 summits that reach an elevation above 3,000 m a.s.l. During more than the half of the year, these areas remain under a snow cover and this fact conditions a good part of the ecological processes there. The high mountain ecosystem of Sierra Nevada holds a huge number of plant and animal endemism, representing a hotspot within the mediterranean hotspot. Sierra Nevada hold some of the higher protections figures for a natural area in Spain and in Europe, so it was declared as a Natural Park since 1989 and as a National Park since 1999, is also designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (since 1986), as a Natura 2000 network site (since 2006) and holds the distinctive Green List awarded by the IUCN in recognition of good management practices.

Bounding Coordinates South West [36.937, -3.609], North East [37.154, -2.95]

Taxonomic Coverage

This dataset includes a total of 34,137 occurrence records of the order Lepidoptera, which compile the butterfly counts by species and section. In total, 101,424 individuals of butterflies were recorded since 2008, belonging to 102 species and 1 subspecies. There are 64 genera and 5 families represented in this dataset.

Family  Pieridae,  Lycaenidae,  Hesperiidae,  Papilionidae,  Nymphalidae

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2008-07-07 / 2020-03-08

Project Data

Since 2007, Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory has undergone an ambitious project promoted by the Environmental and Regional Planning Council of the Regional Government of Andalusia, with the scientific coordination of the University of Granada-Andalusian Environmental Centre (IISTA, Interuniversity Institute of Research of Earth Systems in Andalusia) and with the collaboration of the Spanish National Park Service, in order to develop a monitoring and information management program. The design of the monitoring program was based on the conceptual framework and the thematic categories proposed by the GLOCHAMORE initiative (GLObal CHAnge in MOuntain REgions http://mri.scnatweb.ch/en/projects/glochamore), under the auspices of UNESCO. This monitoring program is based on specific questions concerning the global-change impact, the functioning of the natural systems, and their foreseeable responses under the new scenarios of change. Monitoring methodologies were defined to evaluate both the state of the key ecological functions, such as the structure of the main ecosystems in Sierra Nevada, and the possible impact of global change on Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory promotes the collaboration between the different teams belonging to various institutions (researchers from the University of Granada and other academic institutions at the national and international levels, as well as decision makers) in order to plan transversal work with integrative objectives.

Title Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory
Identifier OBSNEV
Funding "Convenio de Colaboración entre la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía y la Universidad de Granada para el desarrollo de actividades vinculadas al Observatorio de Cambio Global de Sierra Nevada, en el marco de la Red de Observatorios de Cambio Global de Andalucía”
Study Area Description Sierra Nevada (SE Spain) is one of the southernmost highest mountain ranges of Europe. It comprises an elevation range from 270 to 3,492 m a.s.l. and it extends along 100 km from west to east in parallel to the Mediterranean coastline, with a notable increase of aridity towards the eastern sector. Sierra Nevada presents a notable environmental heterogeneity, not only in its elevational gradient, but also in its different orientations and in the west-east gradient. The five Mediterranean bioclimatic belts are represented here: thermo, meso, supra, oro and crioro-Mediterranean. A forest belt occupies good part at the middle and lower elevations and presents an uneven state of transformation, while certain extensions of holm oaks still persist (on siliceous environments and also on carbonate soils), relictic Pyrenean oak forests and some native pine forests of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinaster, the presence of more than 30,000 ha of reforestation pine forests is also noteworthy. Above the tree line there are 30,000 ha of typical Mediterranean mountain scrubland mainly compounded by species of the genus Genista, Juniperus, Berberis and Hormatophila among others. On the upper belts, rocky landscapes defined by recent glacial events alternates with high mountain grasslands and 74 glacial lakes distributed in an elevation range situated between 2,600 and 3,100 m a.s.l. The high mountain area comprises more than 30 summits that reach an elevation above 3,000 m a.s.l. During more than the half of the year, these areas remain under a snow cover and this fact conditions a good part of the ecological processes there. The high mountain ecosystem of Sierra Nevada holds a huge number of plant and animal endemism, representing a hotspot within the Mediterranean hotspot. Sierra Nevada hold some of the higher protections figures for a natural area in Spain and in Europe, so it was declared as a Natural Park since 1989 and as a National Park since 1999, is also designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (since 1986), as a Natura 2000 network site (since 2006) and holds the distinctive Green List awarded by the IUCN in recognition of good management practices.

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Regino Zamora Rodríguez

Sampling Methods

Sampling method consists of a walk transect based on the method proposed by Pollar and Yates (1994) that is the most widely used method in this type of studies. This method consists in counting every butterfly along the transect within a 5 meters band at each side of the observer and also 5 meters above and ahead. Transects average length were 1,900 meters (300 to 3,270 m). The butterflies were mainly visually identified, but a butterfly net has been used in the cases when the visual identification was not possible. Every captured butterfly was released at the same place where it had been catched once it was identified. All the identifications were made at the species levels except for some individuals that only could be identified at Genus level.

Study Extent The network of transects in Sierra Nevada is distributed from 700 to 3,100 m a.s.l. in nine types of ecosystems, broadly characterized as: aquatic systems (occupying less than 1% of the transects), grasslands, rocky high mountains ecosystems (27%), high mountain wet pastures (4%), high mountain scrub dominated by high mountain scrublands (35%), holm oak woods (2%), medium mountain pastures (9%), medium mountain scrub (8%), coniferous plantations (less than 1%), pyrenean oak forests (11%) and Pinus sylvestris autochthonous pine forests (2%).
Quality Control A) Digitalization and storage: all data is stored in a normalized database in the Information System of Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory, whose data entry form includes several validation rules. B) Taxonomic validation: Lepidoptera scientific names were checked with the updated checklist of the European Butterflies (Wiemers et al., 2018), available in GBIF (Maes et al., 2020). C) Standardisation: the standardisation to Darwin Core was done according to the practices recommended by the TDWG guidelines (https://dwc.tdwg.org/terms/).

Method step description:

  1. The original database is stored in the Information System of Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory.
  2. The dataset was standardised to the Darwin Core structure (Wieczorek et al., 2012) as sampling event data. It contains, specifically: 10,369 records of events (1,725 parent events and 8,644 child events), 34,137 records of occurrences, and 4,852 records of associated measurements (wind, cloud cover, air temperature). The parent events refer to the transect sampling whereas the child events correspond to each section sampling (transects are divided into sections, and butterflies are counted separately in each section). The Darwin Core elements included in the Event Core are: eventID, parentEventID, modified, language, institutionCode, ownerInstitutionCode, datasetName, license, continent, country, countryCode, verbatimLocality, eventDate, year, month, day, eventTime, samplingProtocol, sampleSizeValue, sampleSizeUnit, minimumElevationInMeters, maximumElevationInMeters, habitat, decimalLatitude, decimalLongitude, geodeticDatum, georeferenceRemarks, footprintWKT. For the Occurrence Extension are: occurrenceID, catalogNumber, collectionCode, eventID, eventDate, recordedBy, organismQuantity, organismQuantityType, lifeStage, basisOfRecord, scientificName, taxonRank, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, infraSpecificEpithet, scientificNameAuthorship. For the Measurement or Fact Extension table, the Darwin Core elements included are: measurementID, eventID, measurementType, measurementValue, measurementUnit, measurementMethod.
  3. The resulting dataset was published through the Integrated Publishing Toolkit of the Spanish node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (http://ipt.gbif.es).

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Maes, D., Wiemers, M., Verovnik, R., Warren, M., Brosens, D., & Desmet, P. (2020). National checklists and red lists for European butterflies [Data set]. Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). https://doi.org/10.15468/YE7WHJ https://doi.org/10.15468/YE7WH
  2. Olivares, F.J., Barea-Azcón, J.M., Pérez-López, F.J., Tinaut, J.A. y Henares, I. (2012). Mariposas diurnas de Sierra Nevada. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía.
  3. Pollard, E. & Yates, T. J. (1994). Monitoring butterflies for ecology and conservation. Chapman & Hall, London.
  4. Sevilleja, C.G., van Swaay, C.A.M., Bourn, N., Collins, S., Settele, J., Warren, M.S., Wynhoff, I. and Roy, D.B. (2019). Butterfly Transect Counts: Manual to monitor butterflies. Report VS2019.016, Butterfly Conservation Europe & De Vlinderstichting/Dutch Butterfly Conservation, Wageningen.
  5. Van Swaay, C.A.M., Brereton, T., Kirkland, P. & Warren, M.S. (2012) Manual for Butterfly monitoring. Report VS2012.010, De Vlinderstichting/Dutch Butterfly Conservation, Butterfly Conservation UK & Butterfly Conservation Europe, Wageningen.
  6. Wieczorek, J., Bloom, D., Guralnick, R., Blum, S., Döring, M., Giovanni, R., Robertson, T., & Vieglais, D. (2012). Darwin core: An evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard. PLoS ONE, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029715 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029715
  7. Wiemers, M., Balletto, E., Dincă, V., Fric, Z. F., Lamas, G., Lukhtanov, V., Munguira, M. L., van Swaay, C. A. M., Vila, R., Vliegenthart, A., Wahlberg, N., & Verovnik, R. (2018). An updated checklist of the European Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea). ZooKeys, 811, 9-45. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.811.28712 https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.811.28712

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers 10.15470/tc3gdq
d7a3df60-e856-438b-851d-74653ef6c0d2
https://ipt.gbif.es/resource?r=butterflies